«The Countess changed face runs to the pond» – what’s wrong in the sentence, which Bender scared of the underground millionaire Koreiko, and the journalist N. Efros reported in the newspaper «Speech» about the latest drama in the family of Leo Tolstoy? It consists of only independent words: for the sake of economy there were thrown prepositions – auxiliary parts of speech. This is a fairly large group, according to statistics, takes up to 25 % in the spoken or written word of man; without prepositions, conjunctions, particles and ligaments it is impossible to build complex lexical structures. What is the difference between independent parts of speech from the service?
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In the Russian language to the category of self-lexico-grammatical level include nouns, adjectives and numerals, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, participles, gerunds, and impersonal predicative words.
To the category service classifies particles, unions, prepositions and ligaments. Those words we need for grammatical and syntactical relationships in a sentence, expression of the relations between independent parts of speech, giving hints of their significance.
In addition to self-service parts, in separate groups of isolated interjections, modal and onomatopoeic words.
The difference between independent and office parts of speech
Independent parts of speech (they are also called landmark) take the nominative or the index function in the sentence. They call an object or phenomenon, its quality or properties that indicate quantity, condition and action. This short speech lasted a relatively short time – half an hour. Listening to the Pound, panikovski touched. In these proposals all the parts of speech is significant, however always get away with it it is impossible: we use common and complex lexical structures both orally and in writing and to grammatical and syntactical relations are necessary prepositions, particles and conjunctions.
From service words it is impossible to build a sentence – they use only significant. The lexical meaning they have no, they can not distinguish the root or basis. School curricula are usually recommended to determine the difference between independent and office parts of speech, asking to consider the lexical unit: if this is not possible, then we have official word.
The frequency of use of significant parts of speech are much lower than official, but the latest list is very limited (compared to the vocabulary of the language) – only 200 units. And if the number of nouns, adjectives and verbs constantly change, the composition of the particles, conjunctions and prepositions are almost static, and their use is not dependent on the type and genre of the text.
From a morphological point of view, the difference between independent parts of speech of the service is to Express their grammatical meanings via any grammatical indicator. Words are just one of these indicators (in some cases), but they do not change morphologically.
The sentence particles, prepositions and conjunctions are not, then as nouns, adjectives, verbs always carry out certain roles of subject, predicate, definitions and other.
to content ↑Comparative table
Independent parts of speech
Auxiliary parts of speech
Nouns, adjectives, numerals, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, participles, gerunds
Particles, prepositions, conjunctions, transitional phrases
Perform nominative (called the subject, quality, property, action) or the index function
Provide grammatical and syntactical coherence of speech Express relations between other parts of speech
Can form sentences without any auxiliary words
Not be used without independent parts of speech
Have lexical meaning (lexical basis)
Do not have lexical meaning
Unable to answer the question
It is impossible to ask the question
Significant words in the language more than the service, and the frequency of their use is below
A limited and closed list of official words
Grammatical meaning is expressed through grammatical index
Not to join grammatical indicators does not change
Are members of the proposals
Are not members of the proposal