People abstinence is often called the hangover or breaking. This is the hardest condition of the person, who refused to nicotine, alcohol or drugs, which were addicted. Dependence syndrome after the failure of the habit leads to physical and psychological discomfort.
What is withdrawal syndrome
In the clinic diseases abstinence is formed gradually and at different times. Of etiology pathology is divided into alcoholic and drug. Withdrawal syndrome is a mental and physical state after cessation or reduction in dosage of the intake of harmful substances. The essence of this concept is that, abandoning the addiction, the person feels bad, because alcohol, tobacco or drug has firmly woven into the biochemistry of its metabolic processes.
Often abstinence syndrome occurs in alcoholics and drug addicts, but in medical practice it often happens that the dependence is produced by a psychotropic drugs or analgesics. The rate of development of a state depends on the duration of use of harmful substances, age, gender, mental characteristics and General condition of the body. Faster symptoms of failure in smokers, and heavier in drug addicts.
Withdrawal syndrome in alcoholism
A complex disorder that occurs after giving up alcohol is alcohol cravings. All the symptoms could be mitigated or eliminated only through a return to alcohol. This condition should not be confused with a hangover, as it occurs only in chronic alcoholics. Under normal breaking hangover in humans causes nausea, headache, vomiting, hand tremor, which take place in a few hours.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is very hard and is observed from 3 to 5 days. The reason for the painful condition in the body has accumulated too much of the decay products of ethanol (toxins). The liver can no longer metabolize alcohol, its cells begin to die, and this leads to intoxication. Acetaldehyde formed from ethanol is for the body of poison.
Withdrawal syndrome in addicts
As postalcohol syndrome, drug dependence is characterized by the presence of vegetative and psychological symptoms after a dose reduction or complete discontinuation of the drug. The body of the addict normally is not able to function. Without the usual drugs all the systems and organs refuse to work without missing doses.
Narcotic withdrawal syndrome has been classified according to the types of chemicals that were taken by the patient. The most rapid for are heroin, cocaine and opium addiction. In these cases, during withdrawal are the most severe psychopathological and autonomic symptoms. Treatment of detoxification in drug addiction is not at home and in the hospital.
Withdrawal syndrome in Smoking cessation
Effects of tobacco alkaloids on the nervous system and the person feels a surge of strength due to the adrenaline in the blood. With each subsequent cigarette smoked by the smokers formed the reflex arc: toke – fun. The result is a conditioned reflex, which produces physical and psychological addiction to nicotine. If you cancel Smoking nicotine abstinence may result in decreased immunity, and then penetrate all sorts of body infection.
Withdrawal syndrome – symptoms
Depending on the applied substance, the symptoms of withdrawal vary. The most severe condition appear in drug addicts, a little easier – alcoholics, less pronounced signs of failure in smokers. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is manifested in the following characteristic symptoms:
- pronounced psychosis and irrational anxiety;
- pallor of the skin;
- lack of appetite;
- weakness of the limbs;
- nausea, diarrhea;
- violation of coordination of movements;
- increase or decrease pressure;
- delirium tremens (delirium tremens).
Withdrawal symptoms have different severity, but occur in sequence. First develop disorders CNS: depression, insomnia, unexplained anxiety, aggression, anxiety, irritability without reason, and hallucinations. Then begin to disturb the patient physical pain and disorders of the internal organs: vomiting, nausea, tachycardia, bradycardia and other diseases.
The stage of abstinence syndrome
Doctors point to the first and second phase of this condition. Pathology starts with minor symptoms that go without treatment in severe. There are cases when patients catch up with the last degree of withdrawal syndrome. The first stage of addiction is when the person can still fight the urge to take the substance, therefore, the period of psychoactive tension lasts for more than two days.
At the second degree of abstinence illness strongly progresses. The need to take a drug bypasses all other needs and desires of the person. At this stage starts the process of degradation of personality. The last degree of the sign of cancellation is characterized by a painful condition of the patient, who lives thinking only about the next dose. He can’t sleep, to move independently.
How long does withdrawal syndrome
Specific timing is difficult to call, because the tightness depends on the duration of psychotropic and individuality of the human body. Each in different ways trying to get rid of the serious condition, who is at home, and who enlists the aid of specialists. The duration of withdrawal syndrome, first degree, from one to five days. Alcoholics and drug addicts with experience can experience the painful condition for weeks or even months.
Treatment of withdrawal symptoms
Basic principles of treatment of the withdrawal state are in detoxification. Relief of withdrawal syndrome in the home environment is supportive but is not a treatment. The patient must do an enema, drink any adsorbent and a sedative, to purify the blood. The last procedure can be done with the help of this drink, drunk on an empty stomach: a glass of green tea add a pinch of sea salt. If you are experiencing psychosis, you should give the patient a sleeping pill, then call an ambulance.
Drug treatment of withdrawal syndrome involves taking:
- Tranquilizers (Tazepam, Phenazepam). They will help to relieve anxiety, fear.
- b-Blockers (Propranolol). Treating heart failure, normalize of HELL.
- Calcium antagonists (Amlodipine, Nifedipine). Help relieve symptoms, speed up cellular metabolism.
- Preparations of magnesium (Magne B6, Asparkam). Help to ease the withdrawal symptoms.