The name of the disease was due to the region of distribution. During an outbreak before the revolution it was often found in Siberia. The most common form of skin appear purulent sores. The second term which denotes the disease – anthrax. Carriers are Pets.
The causative agent of anthrax
The disease occurs after exposure of the microorganism Bacillus anthracis: in the photo it looks like the accumulation of bacteria. Vegetative and spore form of the bacterium. The first is not so dangerous, and if the sunlight dies quickly. The spores retain pathogenic properties after several dozen years. Anthrax are on the human body in a destructive way, releasing harmful toxins. In their composition contains a complex three-part substance that damages skin cells and in violation of the microcirculation in the tissues.
How is anthrax
The main route of transmission anthrax – contact with infected animals. The vectors are: cows, camels, pigs, sheep, horses. Animal products, soil, water in areas of pasture and dumping sick cattle, too. Many years pathogenic microbes remain there to sleep. The greatest risk of infection are people working with animals. Ways of penetration of bacilli into the human body some through the damaged skin, air or food.
The incubation period of anthrax
Period, which runs from getting the virus in the body before detection of the first symptoms is called the incubation. Depending on the form of the infection this time may be different. The incubation period of anthrax ranges from several hours to two weeks, but in most cases, clear signs are visible already in the first days.
Forms of anthrax
Based on the fact that the bacterium penetrates in different ways, and then spread to organs, there are three forms of anthrax:
- Skin transmission occurs through the open areas of the body. Remain intact only the skin on the nose, the nails and fingertips. During infection at the site of abrasions and minor wounds formed inflammation. Is the most common form of infection.
- Pulmonary and follows the inhalation of anthrax spores. Refers to severe complications and often ends in death. Due to the high temperature, cough and crackling voice, this kind of confused with a banal cold.
- Gastrointestinal – occurs after transmission of the pathogen through meat or milk. There is a General intoxication of the organism, as in the previous case, the temperature rises significantly, occurs with vomiting and diarrhea mixed with blood.
Symptoms of anthrax after 2-3 days after infection. Sometimes this period is reduced to a few hours or on the contrary, is extended. Doctors have identified common signs of the disease:
- inflammation of the lymph nodes;
- temperature (39-40 degrees).
The rest of the symptoms are classified according to the particular disease. Cutaneous may cause:
- stains a reddish color, resembling a mosquito bite;
- thickening of the skin around the affected area;
- increased itching, the appearance of a burning sensation;
- the formation of vesicles – bubble with serous content or blood;
- the appearance of the ulcers with a black bottom.
As soon as the patient notices these changes, you should immediately consult a doctor-infectious disease. Otherwise, after 5-6 days the effect of the toxin increases, the formation of «subsidiary» sores around the original. Inflammation reaches the dimensions of 7-15 mm. This formation is called anthrax carbuncle. The main danger – absence of acute pain due to tissue necrosis. With prolonged lack of treatment and re-septic effect probable lethal outcome.
The intestinal form refers to highly toxic. In just 3-4 days, the bacteria affect the entire body. Intoxication manifests itself in the form:
- lesions of the gastrointestinal tract;
- severe weakness;
- bloody diarrhea;
- shortness of breath;
The pulmonary form is more dangerous, and death within 2-3 days from the initial infection. It is characterized by the appearance of:
- cough with phlegm;
- pulmonary edema.
Laboratory diagnosis of anthrax
Many of the signs of the disease at the initial stage is similar to the other symptoms – sore throat, intestinal disorders, skin rashes, and therefore need a precise diagnosis of anthrax. The first thing that must be done by the doctor to make a diagnosis is to exclude or confirm identity of the patient to the livestock sector. Then:
- Microscopic examination for the presence of bacteria of a dangerous virus in smears, blood, urine and feces.
- Ill take a bioassay and bacterial analysis.
Anthrax – treatment
After examination and tests the doctor prescribes medical procedures. They are held in the hospital (the hospital) under the supervision of medical staff. It is a set of measures that helps relieve the symptoms and start the recovery mechanism of the body. Treatment of anthrax depending on the form includes different techniques:
- the introduction of human immunoglobulin intravenous protivovirusnogo;
- a course of antibiotics (penicillin, levofloxacin, doxycycline) and fluoroquinolones for 1-2 weeks;
- a special diet prescribed by a doctor;
- overlaying sterile bandages (skin infection);
- therapy against intoxication. In severe cases, detoxification to the solution is added to the prednisone;
- strict adherence to personal hygiene.
If complications arise in the form of edema of the lungs and brain, infectious-toxic shock, patients are placed in the intensive care unit. Leaving the hospital it is only after papules on the skin will be closed scars, and bacteriological analysis to confirm that the anthrax Bacillus is absent in the blood. After the illness there is a risk to get infected again, because immunity to the virus is not resistant.
Prevention of anthrax
All measures for the prevention of anthrax associated with veterinary services:
- Inventories of cattle, timely vaccination helps reduce the chances of infection.
- Sick animals are euthanized, and their bodies burned. Where it these steps are.
- Persons exposed to source of infection are placed in isolation for a period of not less than 2 weeks.