Endocrine disease – diabetes mellitus – acute complications and late. Widespread lesions of the lower extremities (legs), developing as a result of the nervous and vascular changes at a constant elevated blood sugar. The number of those who develop diabetes stop growing due to the disease progression of type 2.
What is diabetic foot
The problem of endocrine disease does not lose sharpness, it affects many. The problem of how to treat the diabetic foot have not lost their relevance. Diabetic foot is the consequence of diabetes, integrated anatomically and functional changes. Followed by infection, injury to soft tissue, purulent-necrotic process, and as the most advanced outcome, amputation. The collective term «diabetic foot» is a category of late manifestations of the disease, characterized by abnormalities of the lower extremities of a person.
Diabetic foot stage
The deterioration depends on the stage of the diabetic foot (risk groups):
- Begins deformation of the arch, there are corn, pale skin, scaly.
- Appear superficial diabetic leg ulcers with localization in the load points (heel, toes), without affecting the tissue.
- The lesion extends to subcutaneous tissue, tendons, and muscle tissue.
- The pathology is deepened to the bone.
- On small areas began to develop abscess, gangrene, black in color with clear edges.
- Lesions spread extensively in the leg up, it is noticeable in the photo.
Diabetic foot symptoms
For ischemic form (vascular lesions) typical pale, cold skin. The ulcers are uneven and painful, the sensitivity is stored, the pulse of the arteries is weak. For the type of neuropathic (nerve injury) the symptoms of diabetic foot are manifested by such signs:
- the reduction of sensitivity;
- increase the limit of pain;
- The shape of the arch, corns and thickening of the epidermis.
- Ulcers injured areas have smooth edges.
- Skin color may look right, but between the toes is red.
- Arterial pulse – no change.
The disease often manifests as a mixed type, including the signs of the two types. Complaints depend on the form and stage of the problem. The presence of ulcers causes blood flow to the inflammatory area. This provokes the leaching of calcium leads to changes in bones, and severe stage:
- deformed limbs;
- the fragility, the vulnerability of the feet;
- to Charcot osteoarthropathy (Charcot foot).
Diagnosis of diabetic foot
Initial examination begins with a visual examination the doctor, check the dryness, thickness of the skin, search for signs of deformation of fingers. After for further diagnosis of the diabetic foot should do blood tests to check cholesterol, glucose; urine test for sugar. Assigned 2-projection radiography of the lower limbs and joints of the leg, a CT angiogram of blood vessels, ultrasound densitometry of blood flow. Spend a buck-sowing for the study of ulcerative content.
Diabetic foot – treatment
Stage of development patients assigned to the conservative treatment of diabetic foot, or need to contact the surgical Department. The sooner the patient is examined, the easier and more successful to cure the complication. The initial phase requires a comprehensive therapeutic approach aimed to normalize the metabolism, to restore blood flow to the limbs, to treat neuropathy of the body. Therapeutic methods:
- standard glucose-lowering drugs;
- antibiotic therapy, antiseptic;
- means of anesthesia;
Surgery (takes into account age restrictions) is:
- angioplasty (restoration of the arterial lumen to restore blood flow);
- bypass arteries (the formation of new paths of blood flow, bypassing the problematic vessel);
- endarterectomy (removal of diseased vessels, redirecting blood to other vessels);
- artery stenting (installation frame on the affected area of the vessel walls to ensure their extension).
Diabetic foot treatment at home
Therapy begins, usually on an outpatient basis. The treatment of diabetic foot in the home is to carefully follow all medical prescriptions. Requires monitoring of sugar, timely administration of prescribed medications, including vitamin b, drugs with thioctic acid. If the patient is already caught up with cellulitis of the foot in diabetes, to treat ulcers, regularly be dressed with antiseptics the condition of his life. We need to prepare for a slow process of care.
The treatment of diabetic foot folk remedies
Together with the medications many people use additional methods. Experience in the treatment of diabetic foot folk remedies collected many recipes, reducing the risk of operation and relieve symptoms:
- For lotions applied a decoction of eucalyptus leaves with the addition of honey.
- Good wound healing effect of ordinary yogurt.
- Diabetic gangrene foot wound after the amputation of fingers is processed juice from the leaves of burdock.
- To disperse the blood to heal wounds successfully helps bilberry (berries, decoction of leaves).
Prevention of diabetic foot
The main rule is a timely systematic prevention of diabetic foot in diabetes. You need to:
- use free genuine leather shoes, orthopedic for flat feet;
- wearing socks with soft elastic band from cotton or wool;
- do regular exercises for the unloading stop, the walk home in a special massaging shoes;
- wash, dry wiping his feet;
- lubricate dry skin with essential fatty oils, creams;
- forget about Smoking;
- to protect against hypothermia, overheating;
- regularly surveyed.
Inspection should be a daily procedure. When a change in the sensitivity, it is important not to miss any violations, including the discoloration of the skin, fever. Insignificant damage is able to apply to trophic ulcer, and the presence of bacteria in gangrene. Better if who examines the patient and checks if there is a deterioration in response to touch. The basic principle is to carefully monitor the condition of the feet, blood sugar level, and noticing the initial symptoms, immediately consult a doctors.
Diabetic foot syndrome