The familiar potato pest brings a lot of worries for farmers and gardeners by eating fit. Where it came from in the fields and it is possible to get rid of it? There are many possible methods of pest control: everyone will be able to select the appropriate method.
Colorado potato beetle – description
Potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) know all the gardeners, he belongs to the order beetles. Larvae and adult insects cause significant damage to the plantings because they feed on the leaves of potato, eggplant, tomato, sweet pepper and other Solanaceae crops. The leaf beetle has become «famous» when destroyed the huge potato fields in Colorado, and during that time people were unable to completely destroy the pest: he quickly spread on fields.
How does the Colorado beetle
The pest is easy to learn even for a novice gardener. This striped beetle with orange and black paint many years ago, caught on in Europe. Not spared invasion and Russia. The size of specimens average length oval, convex body, about 8-12 mm with a width of 6-7 mm. you Can see black spots on pronotum and 5 lines on Nasrallah. Wings are well developed, the pest overcomes long distances. The larvae reach 15-16 mm in length, have a black head and two rows of dots along the sides. If once they brown, then it has a different look, gaining a yellow or pink color.
What eats Colorado potato beetle
The invasion of the insect on the field with solanaceous crops shows than the Colorado beetle feeds on. His appetite insatiable for a few days could not eat off only the young leaves of potatoes, but the stalks and stems. The voracity of the larvae is huge – for the day she can eat from 3 to 110 mg of leaves. Overwintered or young insect can destroy 75 mg green, so scientists are constantly looking for effective means of combating it.
Stage of development of the Colorado potato beetle
The uniqueness of the insect in large quantity, high adaptation to all weather conditions, durability of all stages of development of the Colorado potato beetle. Fertility is also surprising: a female over the summer lays up to 2 million eggs. But above all, their breeding begins with the onset of heat and stabilization of weather conditions. Should warm up the soil to 10-12 degrees and stop the insects hibernate in the soil, crawl to the surface. The first 2-3 days they adjust, and then begin vigorously to eat everything that gets in their way:
- potato, tomato tops;
- the leaves of the pepper;
- shoots other Solanaceae.
Already on day 3-5 insects begin to mate, the female in a single laying lays 25-30 eggs, and sometimes up to 70. If the temperature is over 20 degrees, and the humidity is above 70%, for the eggs should be from 7 to 18 days, and they turn into larvae. The last increase 3 times, and then burrow into the soil to pupate. Pupae are underground 10-20 days, at this time they are safe for harvest. There is an adult insect, and the cycle begins again: it lasts from April to September, after which the insects burrow into the soil for wintering.
Where did the Colorado beetle
Although the pest got its name after the harm caused to the potato fields of Colorado in 1859, is the true home of the Colorado potato beetle is located in the northeast of Mexico or Sonora zoogeographical subregion. There are widely distributed beetles of the family Leptinotarsa eating wild solanaceous plants, tobacco plants for relatives of the familiar potatoes and tomatoes. Then the pest has spread more to the North and East to the Rocky mountains in the nineteenth century, he was eating the potatoes that were grown immigrants.
The habitat of the Colorado potato beetle
From North America in cargo ships, the pest moved to Europe. Until 1918 it was possible to destroy it, but in the confusion of the First world war he settled down in France. Since then, the potato beetle’s hard to stop: Europe, he came to Britain, and in 1940-ies, reached the borders of the USSR. In 1958 it recorded a massive flight from Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the Carpathians and the Baltic sea, flew a large number of pests from Poland. Since the habitat of the Colorado potato beetle has become the European part of Russia (from the Baltic to the black sea).
How to deal with Colorado potato beetle
Since the insect causes great damage to agriculture, the struggle is waged with all available means. If the planted area is small, then the larvae and adults are harvested by hand, using folk remedies and traps. With a huge potato fields is difficult to manage such techniques are used more severe means of combating the Colorado potato beetle. Popular use of insecticides (pesticides) to overcome the strong immune system of the pest, which has developed resistance to poisons.
Ways to combat the potato beetle
Choosing acceptable ways of dealing with the Colorado potato beetle, it is necessary to weigh all the arguments. It is preferable to manually collect pests. To carry out this operation follows a day in the sun. Still lay between the rows of traps (made from diced potatoes or peelings), which are going pests. They are collected and destroyed, soaking in a solution of kerosene, trichlorfon or Malathion. Popular plant with a strong smell around the field with solanaceous crops is dill, calendula, marigolds, beans and other plants.
Apply and other organic methods of mulching planting onion husk, sawdust, birch, spruce up dusting the plants with ash, mustard, spraying with vinegar solution, salt water. All this is possible only on small suburban areas, and in huge areas it is necessary to treat the matter seriously and to think about the use of special preparations of new generation.
Remedy for the Colorado potato beetle
It is important to make a choice, getting the funds against the Colorado potato beetle. The drug must be strong, because the pests have adapted to many active substances used previously for the treatment and become resistant to poisons. At the same time the tool should not be dangerous to the gardener, the environment. Such drugs produced in the form of suspension concentrate or emulsion concentrate, which is convenient for dissolution in water and treatment with a sprayer.
Poison from the Colorado potato beetle
Choosing drugs against the Colorado potato beetle is available with a range of products known and trusted manufacturers. The main thing when choosing to study, what is used the active substance. Under different names produce drugs with one active ingredient. For example, Pencycuron, Imidacloprid part of the preparations Prestige, Konfidor (Bayer, Germany), Prestigitation (Russia), the feedback positive is an effective remedy for the Colorado potato beetle.
A folk remedy for the Colorado potato beetle
For those who care about the environment, you should pay attention to folk remedy for the Colorado potato beetle. An effective way in addition to multiple collecting pests, – to have birds. Who eats Colorado potato beetle: this pheasant, dross, zlatovlaska. They not only look attractive, but also eat pests. Another natural enemy of the pest – bedbug pycnomerus, which destroys the insect, and will not need to poison him.
Organic drugs from the Colorado potato beetle
To use organic drugs from the Colorado potato beetle is a good way for those for whom the use of pesticides is taboo. Safe are means of biological action. The spore of the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, contained in preparations Basical, Bitoksibatsillin, Bicol, will cause intestinal diseases in beetles that will soon die. Choosing an effective way to get rid of the Colorado potato beetle, do not cause harm to the environment, please note: the drug does not accumulate in plants and harmless.
Spraying potato from the Colorado potato beetle
Often fans of folk remedies use spraying with vegetable broths. Such treatment of potato from the Colorado potato beetle effectively, only it should be carried out every 10-14 days. Used strong solutions of celandine, sage, horsetail, garlic, dandelion, mustard, and walnut leaves. To remedy were kept on the leaves, you need 10 liters of infusion add 50 grams of soap. The same methods is prisypanija leaf ash, dry mustard, corn flour, cement.
Video: how to fight the Colorado potato beetle without chemicals