Fertilizers — types and classification, characteristics, application and methods of application

To dream of a rich harvest of large agricultural firms and gardeners in their plots. For the first there is no question whether chemical fertilizers, and gardeners often prefer to do without them. Is it right? Do I need mineral supplements? Is there a harm of fertilizers (fertilizers)? It is useful to know the answers to these questions.

What is fertilizer

Gardeners, fear of chemicals, I prefer to feed the plants with organic fertilizers, without hesitation, that the small number of useful components. Vegetables, berries, shrubs for proper growth and productivity due to many different elements. Often the power is not enough due to the characteristics of the soil:

  • clay – iron, manganese;
  • the peat – copper;
  • the acidic, marshy zinc;
  • in sandstones – the lack of magnesium, potassium, nitrogen.

Plants signal their problems the leaves change colors, the size and shape of the fruit. The task of man is to make timely feeding. Fertilizers are chemical compounds of inorganic origin. They have one main component, or several. The nutrients being in the form of mineral salts that help:

  • the increase in yield;
  • to strengthen the plants;
  • protection from pests;
  • stimulation of growth and nutrition;
  • to improve fruit quality;
  • restoration of the soil;
  • protection from weeds;
  • the immune system of plants.

Types of mineral fertilizers

The fertilizer mixture used in intensive agriculture in reputable firms in suburban areas. That relates to mineral fertilizers? It is important to know the characteristics of the different categories. Different types of fertilizers and their classification:

  • Simple or one-sided, consisting of a single substance. These include phosphate, potash, nitrogen tuks.
  • Mineral complex – includes several active substances, simultaneously affecting both the soil and plants.
  • Controlled release complex composition of trace elements – molybdenum, calcium, iodine, manganese.

Nitrogen fertilizer

The use of mineral fertilizers with high nitrogen content helps the development of the stem and leaves of the plant that is needed in the spring. The good solubility allows it liquid, solid use. Nitrogen fertilizers have the following classification:

  • Nitrate, calcium, sodium nitrate, suitable for acidic soil recommended for the plants with short gestation period, radishes, lettuce. In excess causes harm – accumulating fruits.
  • Ammonium sulfate ammonium autumn requires application. Him respond well onions, tomatoes, cucumbers.

Find use with the major manufacturers and privateers such kinds of fertilizers:

  • Amide – urea has the highest nitrogen concentration, contributes to a large crop. It requires making the land useful for tomatoes in the formation, growth.
  • Ammonium nitrate – ammonium nitrate in combination with potassium, phosphorus increases the yield of crops, beet, potatoes.

Potash

For raising disease resistance, enhance flavor, increase storage quality of the fruit can not do without potassium. Popular types of potash fertilizer:

  • Potassium chloride is a natural raw material extracted from ore. Contains chlorine, which is harmful to some plants. To avoid bad influence, should be fertilizing in the fall. It is good for beets, barley, potatoes, buckwheat.

Together with trace elements, phosphorus and nitrogen potash increases crop yields. Widespread fertilizer:

  • Potash salt has a high concentration of potassium, introduced in the fall. Promotes the growth of potato crops.
  • Potassium nitrate contains nitrogen, useful for tying and ripening.
  • Potassium sulfate is used in the dressing of all cultures, applied to the soil in the cultivation of root crops.

Phosphate fertilizers

For supply of berry bushes, trees need phosphorus. Its application accelerates the fruit, increases resistance to frost in winter. Efficient fertilizer phosphorus fertilizers:

  • Simple superphosphate – asleep in the earth, used in the flowering period. The ideal fertilizer for flowers.
  • Phosphate rock – for action requires acidic soil. Choice of cereals, vegetable crops. Can provide the plant with phosphorus for many years.
  • Double superphosphate is used for berry bushes, bring in autumn for the best flowers for the winter.

Micronutrient

In the classification of mineral fertilizers for plant nutrition there is a group with microelements. Often in soils lacking molybdenum, copper or manganese. The deficiency of iron or zinc is possible by treating seed materials in mineral micronutrients, while respecting the norm. When using actively growing root system, increased protection from disease, accelerated growth.

Klassificeret types of micronutrients on the active substance:

  • complex contain several elements, improve yields, fight pests, «Master», «Sizam», «Oracle»;
  • copper – wetlands – copper sulfate, pyrites;
  • boron has the property to stimulate growth of young plants – borax, boric acid;
  • molybdenum – forest soils – ammonium molybdenum acid.

Complex fertilizers

This group of mineral fertilizers will take multilateral preparations with several active ingredients. Complex mineral fertilizer solves the various problems – increases yield, prevents weeds, pests, and improves the quality of flowers. This group includes:

  • Ammophos and nitrogen-phosphorus tuk. Suitable for vegetable, fruit crops are especially good for colours they begin a luxuriant growth, rich flowering.
  • Diammonium phosphate – contains the basic substances – potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements. The fertilizer helps control pests, is used for all plants.

Large agricultural firms make the soil complex fertilizer with fertilizer planter as pictured. Gardeners scatter them in spring or autumn, depending on soil type. Popular mineral complexes:

  • NPK. Suitable for all plants and soils – in clayey bring in the fall in sandy – spring, before plowing.
  • The nitrophoska. Great for tomatoes, improving the taste, increasing the size. Apply in spring and during the growing season. Cucumbers are not susceptible to diseases.

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The use of mineral fertilizers

An experienced grower in appearance of the plant will determine which substances that is not enough. What are the necessary fertilizers and their use on the site:

  • when nitrogen deficiency is slow growth, die off, dry the lower leaves;
  • lack of phosphorus appears reddish, greyish their colouring;
  • a deficiency of potassium reduces the germination of seeds, increases susceptibility to disease, lower leaves on the edges begin to turn yellow, become brown, wither away;
  • in the absence of zinc of Apple trees formed a small outlet;
  • magnesium deficiency is marked by a pale green.

Used nutritional tuks through the soil when digging, watering dissolved of drugs. When using mineral compounds do not mix groups of fertilizers:

  • urea, lime, simple superphosphate, manure, ammonium nitrate;
  • ammonium sulfate from dolomite, chalk;
  • simple superphosphate of lime, ammonium nitrate, urea;
  • potassium salt with dolomite, chalk.

Mineral fertilizers

Before you begin the nutrition of plants and soil, you need to understand the rules for the application of fertilizers. There are ways of mineral fertilizers, depending on the composition:

  • The nitrogen buried in the ground in spring, when digging – has the ability to evaporation. When autumn intake of beneficial substances are washed away with the rains.
  • Ammonium nitrate scattered in the snow that melt the granules, making their way to the soil.

The features when you make have other active mineral components:

  • Potassium is buried in the ground in spring and autumn. Potassium chloride should preferably be used in late summer to erode chlorine.
  • Phosphorus can be made at any time. You need to consider that it is poorly soluble in water can reach the roots after 2 months. It is preferable to fertilize in late summer for strengthening plants for the winter season.

Calculation of doses of mineral fertilizers

Experts from major agricultural firms expect doses of fertilizers depending on soil type separately for each culture. Thus consider the standard of the application of mineral fertilizers on a hectare of land. It is important to know the content of active substance in the composition. Vacationers can use the norms of mineral fertilizers in grams per square meter:

  • ammonium nitrate, 15-25;
  • superphosphate – 40-60;
  • potassium chloride – 15-20;
  • NPK – 70-80.

The choice of fertilizers

Winter is a time of preparation for the new season. Any specialty store can offer a variety of products for plants. To choose the right fertilizer, it is necessary to consider tasks that need to be addressed with their help, to provide a number of factors:

  • the desired impact;
  • seasonality of use;
  • form release and volume;
  • the company producer.

Impact

On the influence of fertilizers are divided like this:

  • Soil restoration. «Kemira Suite» – promotes growth when the climate changes. Plus – great quality, minus the strong deoxidation of the soil.
  • Protection from pests. «GOMATAM» – increases the yield due to their absence. Plus – the neutralization of the action of pesticides. The disadvantage is the need for strict adherence to dose.

For effects there are the following fertilizers:

  • Stimulation of growth. «MX» – it increases productivity, immunity. Plus a high concentration, you need a small amount. Disadvantage – takes time to prepare.
  • Protection from weeds. Etisso has a great effect on turf grass. Plus affect plants through leaves and roots. Minus – valid for the next year.
  • Increased immunity. NPK – suitable for all crops. Plus – easy dissolving in water. Drawback – small storage period.

Seasonality

When choosing mineral fertilizers need to pay attention to seasonality:

  • Spring is the time of nitrogen fertilizers. Urea promotes growth of stems and leaves. Plus well absorbed by plants. Minus the overdose small fruit set.
  • Summer requires phosphorous fertilizer. Superphosphate – promotes the formation of fruit. Plus meets the needs of a particular substance. Disadvantage – the lack of micronutrients.

With an emphasis on seasonality, you need to consider:

  • In winter, the plants are nourished for their preparation for the cold season autumn use fertilizers. Potassium sulfate – are firming, helps to shift the frost. Plus – well absorbed, the disadvantage is not suitable for all soils.
  • All-season fertilizer. Fertika – complex preparation. Plus contains many beneficial active ingredients. Minus – additional essential micronutrients.

Release form

In appearance the mineral tuks are divided into 3 groups:

  • Granules. The superphosphate is brought into the soil when digging, and is used in dissolved form. Plus – ease of use. Negative long dissolves.
  • Liquid. Carbide-ammonia mixture is used for irrigation. Plus the high concentration negative – need to ensure compliance with feeding.
  • Powder. Magnesium lime is applied to soils for digging. Plus is quickly absorbed. Drawback – poorly stored, compressed.

The volume

Large farms carry out procurement of necessary mineral substances by the ton in bags. Experts recommend that for the garden-country site of 6 acres purchased about 12 kg of mineral products for feeding. Gardeners must estimate the necessary volume, including packaging and rate of application. For example, fertilizer:

  • «Kemira potato» granules – packaging 5 kg;
  • «Gomatam» – liquid form – 250 ml bottle.

Manufacturer

You can make a choice of mineral products, focusing on the manufacturer. Many firms have years of experience, good reviews for quality. Popular fertiliser suppliers:

  • «Fusco» – effective drugs in liquid and granular form. Plus fertilizer for specific plants, the disadvantages inherent in individual substances.
  • «Kemira» – a wide range of drugs for different seasons. Plus Finnish quality deficiencies in accordance with the existing composition.
  • Agrikola – soluble fertilizing. Plus – effective for growing all crops, negative – need to withstand the dosage.

Price of mineral fertilizers

To acquire the means for feeding in specialty stores, via the Internet sites. The cost will depend on the amount of the drug in the packaging of the manufacturer. The difference of the price in rubles is:

Fertilizer

Volume, kg, ml

Price, R.

Ammonium nitrate

0,9

75 — 90

Simple superphosphate

3

230 to 270

Potassium sulfate

1

150-180

NPK

1

110-125

Map

1

110-120

Kemira universal

5

400-450

Agricola cabbage

0,05

25-30

«Gomatam»

0,25

100-120

Agricola floral

1

160-180

Video: fertilizer tuks

Reviews

Alevtina, 56 years

Many years I grow roses, the flower is admired. The secret is proper care, especially feeding. In the spring be sure to sprinkle on the wet ground urea. For the period of summer autumn necessary superphosphate. The bushes are powerful, the buds are large, bright. Phosphorus at this time is preparing plants for winter, which they tolerate.

Elena, 54 years

To grow in the garden children, grandchildren, vegetables and berries – what could be better. Long resisted the use of chemical fertilizers, manure is preferred. Only after seeing what the harvest collects neighbor, decided to try it. In the shop advised «Kemira Suite» in Finland. The result pleased – freak excellent tomatoes and onions.

Anna, 45 years

Could not figure out how to feed the plants. The leaves then turn yellow, in a tube rolled up. Helped mom girlfriends – former agronomist. Now I’m an expert on nutrient media for plants. Pre-buy all types of fertilizers – phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium. Seeds are soaked in mineral fertilizers, the crops can’t complain.

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