First aid for frostbite and hypothermia — grade and signs the required first-aid actions

The body, weakened by hunger, fatigue or alcohol, and most easily prone to injury in the skin when exposed to low temperatures. At risk of getting cold injury also includes people with pathology of the immune or cardiovascular system.

What is frostbite

According to the medical classification of diseases, frostbite is the injury suffered by body tissues due to exposure to cold. First signs of cold injury are lowered body temperature and slowed heart rate. The skin begins to go numb or to tingle all over my body felt chills. In such cases, the principal is providing himself first aid, before going to the hospital. This will help to avoid severe health consequences.

What to do for frostbite

Everyone needs to remember that proper first aid for hypothermia can minimize the effects of cold on the body. Unfortunately, not all aware of what actions for frostbite of the right. People make mistakes, that aggravate the condition of the body. To know which actions are correct, you need to be aware of the causes and signs caused by frost injury. They can even appear after a long winter walk.

Signs of frostbite

Low temperature and combination of factors can lead to hypothermia, and subsequently the freezing of tissues. First, the decrease of body temperature (below 35 degrees), all processes are slowed, including the heartbeat. At long influence of low temperatures on the body may occur frostbite. Everyone should know how to look up the symptoms of frostbite:

  • whitening, loss of sensation of the skin;
  • a mild tingling sensation (at first degree);
  • the onset of second-degree cold injury is characterized by the appearance of blisters on the skin similar to a burn (within 12 hours after warming);
  • for the third degree is characterized by the darkening of the skin that indicates the beginning of necrosis of tissues.

The causes of frostbite

The obvious reason for the injuries inflicted by the cold, is the effect of low temperatures on the body. Some of the causes of hypothermia and frostbite allowed people just out of ignorance, because even when exposed to slightly low temperature you can get frostbite. To trigger the process of hypothermia can:

  • alcoholic intoxication;
  • the fatigue of the body, the hunger;
  • not enough correct clothing (synthetic fabric, tight things that violate the blood circulation);
  • wearing tight shoes in which there is no room for a layer of air;
  • soak clothing with high humidity;
  • long stay on the street in a strong wind.

Degree frostbite

The influence of low temperatures can be small tissue of the body in this case can easily recover. However, there are also cases that lead to death. Often this happens unknowingly signs of cooling, and the danger that can carry each the degree of frostbite. Help first-aid training (first aid). Proper first aid, and basic rules of behavior in the cold, which even have to know each student is vital to avoid fatal outcomes.

According to the degree of tissue damage, frostbite may be:

  • First degree – blanching of the skin, tingling, numbness. After warming fabric can easily be restored.
  • Second – skin is white, feels itching, and burning. When warming becomes brown or bluish hue, there are bubbles of liquid on the surface of the skin while warming. At this stage the tissue changes are reversible with proper PMP.
  • For the third degree is characterized by a sharp lowering of blood pressure, blood circulation and reducing body temperature to critical levels. The skin after rewarming has a bluish-black color, loss of sensitivity of frostbite of the site, a couple of days felt a lot of pain.
  • The fourth degree is characterized by a high probability of death, there comes a deadening of the cells, and sometimes bones.

In medical practice, consider the periods of frostbite: prereactive period of defeat, early and late. For prereactive period is characterized by too long exposure to cold. Reactive period is characterized by strong tissue damage, late is associated with a painful recovery process, in some cases, in case of unsuccessful treatment with amputation.

The first aid for frostbite

According to ICD 10, frostbite refers to injury caused by the external factors. This injury is sometimes more dangerous than other types, due to the fact that the wrong aid for frostbite may aggravate the victim’s condition, lead to irreversible consequences. Emergency treatment of frostbite is as follows:

  • the first is to remove the person from the cold but avoid sudden temperature changes, to prevent excessive tissue injury;
  • secondly, to cover the damaged cold place a dry bandage to reduce the speed of warming, to come into a warm room;
  • to ensure plenty of warm, even sweet drink to give the body warm inside, to exclude the effects of cold, to prevent active movement;
  • be sure to consult a doctor for serious injuries – call an ambulance, to stop the rapid development of irreversible processes.

What to do for frostbite of the hands

Exposure to cold often on exposed areas of the skin, so frostbite of the hands is more common in medical practice. PMP with hypothermia in the event of damage to the limbs the same General scheme of action in the provision of emergency assistance. It is necessary to warm the extremities, without rubbing the skin, apply a dry bandage and call an ambulance if the exposure was prolonged or intense.

What to do for frostbite of the feet

The scheme of actions if there is evidence of frostbite of the feet, the same General principle of rendering first aid in cooling. You need to pay attention to what not to do in case of frostbite of the lower extremities:

  • you can’t RUB my feet in the cold, take off your shoes, otherwise the legs may swell for a couple of minutes, will be badly hurt; the shoes in this case, back to wear will not work;
  • place the limb on a heat source: battery, hot water, etc.;
  • RUB the surface of the skin of the foot, toes, snow, smear alcohol liquids, and fats.

What to do for frostbite of the face

To avoid consequences in the form of pale spots on the face as pictured on the Internet, and especially deep damage to the skin by cold, you need to adhere to preventive measures. To prevent frostbite of the skin is possible, adhering to the easy rules:

  • if it’s bitter cold, and you feel unwell – better to stay at home;
  • to avoid the superficial injuries of the skin, before going out on the street you can’t miss the face creams – they contain fluid, which in the cold will injure the delicate skin;
  • in order not to freeze your nose, cheeks, well wrap up with a scarf, to warm breath warmed the face, but not create condensation.

First aid for frostbite of the skin is carried out in the usual way, depending on the extent of skin lesions with cold. How to treat frostbite on your face? Treatment of frostbite 2-4 degrees only under the supervision of a physician, and the scheme and the duration of the effects differs only depending on the severity. If you find that the skin after warming sensitivity is lost and darkened – refer immediately to the doctor.

Frostbite and General freezing

First aid for General hypothermia of the body is a little different from what is first aid for frostbite. If human skin is not damaged, but the body temperature has fallen to critical levels, possible loss of consciousness and fatigue, you should do the following:

  • to put someone in a heated room;
  • if you have the opportunity to put in the bathroom with warm water (room first, then gradually increasing the temperature);
  • to the extent that, as is redness of the extremities, sensitivity occurs, and the person regains consciousness, give him warm tea with sugar, wrap in a warm blanket and to go to the doctor for examination.

Characteristics of the process of treatment with a total freeze is slightly different from the scheme used in the frostbite. To restore the body after a mild frost is possible in less than a week. In more severe cases, possible long-term recovery. Remember that to ignore the freezing, frostbite is impossible, because the consequences of such exposure on human health can be irreversible.

Prohibited acts with frostbite

Ignorance of the basics of first aid for frostbite can lead to the aggravation of the situation. Sometimes people trying to help, make it worse. What not to do for frostbite:

  • dramatically warm the victim;
  • banned rubbing the damaged area;
  • give to warm alcohol;
  • remove clothes, shoes in the cold, trying to RUB the affected areas.

Video: PMP for frostbite

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