What is salmonellosis in adults and children — signs of infection, symptoms and treatment at home

In the human body there are many bacteria and germs that are responsible for the correct functioning of the intestinal flora. They protect the body against viruses and infections. Under certain circumstances it may be imbalance, leading to some diseases. Among the common diseases it is necessary to highlight the Salmonella Enteritidis.

What is Salmonella

Salmonella enteritidis in the International classification of diseases is ICD codes A01 and A02. Often the disease affects children, especially up to 2 years as the causative agents of salmonellosis – Salmonella bacteria – transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Themselves pathogens belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae have a complex antigenic structure. Under a microscope, you can see that in form they represent sticks with rounded edges. They are very mobile thanks to the many flagella on the body. In epidemiology there are two types of bacteria:

  • safe for the human body, Salmonella Bongori;
  • causing the disease – Salmonella Enterica.

How do you get Salmonella

It is important to note that the pathogenesis begins in the gut. After contact with bacteria in the body, they begin to rapidly multiply, so should know how is salmonellosis:

  • food. This is the most common way to be infected with Salmonellabecause the bacteria can enter the body with almost any food. Beneficial bacteria is meat, dairy products, eggs and fish. This happens due to the fact that protein food is the most convenient for reproduction, whereas plant products, on the contrary, have less risk for bacterial contamination.
  • water. Liquid is a place where a causative agent of salmonellosis does not breed. The source of infection it can become if there will be taken the excrement of salmonellosis, but such cases are rare.
  • airborne path. Pathogenic bacteria Salmonella is not transmitted this way, although there is speculation that infection is possible during the spraying of droppings of pigeons in the air.
  • contact-household method. As mentioned earlier, the bacteria is transmitted by the fecal-oral way. For this reason, the main thing in contact with the patient is personal hygiene. It should be noted that transmission of infection from infectious patients, so the care should be taken.

The incubation period of salmonellosis

Salmonella overly resistant to environmental factors, so its vital functions in the human environment can vary from a few days to one and a half years. Some people can be carriers of this disease, although the signs will not be manifested. The incubation period of salmonellosis occurs from several hours up to three days, and the first signs of being a carrier of the virus can occur after 3 hours.

Symptoms of salmonellosis

In humans, the pathogenicity of bacteria increases. In the course of the incubation period, it is possible to allocate an erased and a severe form of the disease, when the symptoms of salmonellosis can be both hidden and clearly marked. The initial phase of the disease characterized with symptoms such as headache, weakness (up to loss of consciousness), unbearable stomach pain. Possible rapid rise in temperature and the appearance of a one-time or periodic vomiting.

After vomiting may occur the relief and improvement of health, especially if immediate first aid (flush stomach, drink the right amount of tablets of activated charcoal, etc.). With a long incubation period it is likely that nausea and vomiting may be absent. In the next stage of the disease symptom is diarrhea, which is accompanied by acute pain in the upper abdomen. The number of bowel movements can reach a dozen a day or even more, and stool consistency will be more liquid like swamp slime.

Signs of salmonellosis in children

The greatest sensitivity to the disease are toddlers under 2 years, so it is especially important to consider the signs of salmonellosis in children. Initially, the child has a fever, but in some cases it can remain stable and normal. Starts loose stools, and he is accompanied by a fetid odor. There are signs of dehydration. The child become restless, his limbs are cold, and the belly swells.

Signs of salmonellosis in an adult

At the initial stage signs of salmonellosis in an adult are no different from intoxication in General. It can be headache, muscle fatigue, chills, accompanied by fever. With further development of the intestinal infection is manifested pain in the navel area. If the incubation period of the disease in an adult occupied for a short time, there is vomiting, which can last for several days. Do patients have loose stools, but he has no such pain, as in cases of poisoning and dysentery.

Analysis for salmonellosis

For clinical diagnosis of the disease is taken of differential analysis for salmonellosis. To determine the disease do the analysis on sowing and examine:

  • cal;
  • blood;
  • vomit;
  • the solution after gastric lavage.

Treatment of salmonellosis

At diagnosis, in rare cases, a person hospitalitynet – it can be treated at home. When severe intoxication produces gastric lavage, and intravenous saline with glucose. Prolonged vomiting is injected through a vein hypertonic solution of sodium chloride. Antibiotic treat comorbidities, as evidenced by the etiology of the disease, most strains of bacteria resistant to the action of the drug. Treatment of salmonellosis is carried out with the following medications:

  • Enterosgel;
  • Literan;
  • White coal;
  • Furazolidone;
  • Bacteriophage;
  • Regidron
  • Smectite;
  • Use adsorbents, etc.

Diet for salmonellosis

In the post period, you should follow some rules of supply. Diet for salmonellosis implies the exclusion in the first week of dairy products (they are replaced with probiotics), raw vegetables and fruits, fats of vegetable origin. Well are light soups, boiled meat, vegetable mashed potatoes, crackers. Baby are recommended during this period to prepare steamed and pureed meals. Porridge cooked on water or vegetable broths. The meat steamed, and the preference for meatballs and burgers. Drink it is preferable to cook a fruit pudding.

Complications of salmonellosis

It should be noted that the disease is cured, but if time does not begin to treat, can have serious consequences, including death. It is necessary to highlight the following group of dangerous complications of salmonellosis:

  • diseases of the urinary and biliary organs;
  • infectious-toxic shock;
  • brain edema;
  • liver failure;
  • pneumonia;
  • lesions of the stomach;
  • heart failure;
  • vascular collapse;
  • chronic pancreatitis;
  • sepsis with the development of purulent foci.

Prevention of salmonellosis

To prevent diseases it is necessary to follow some rules. First, to not know what is salmonellosis, it is necessary to observe personal hygiene and wash hands with soap or other detergent before each meal. Secondly, for the prevention of salmonellosis is necessary to properly store food (raw separate from cooked). Buying food should be checked, especially eggs, have to watch where they brought their expiration date. You need to observe the mode of preparation of meat dishes and avoid eating them raw.

Video: what foods can cause Salmonella