Thyroid cancer — signs and symptoms, stages and treatment, surgery to remove and forecasts

Making out in the mirror or at photos lump in the neck region, contact your doctor. Such education may be cancer thyroid. If the time to start to heal, you can avoid dangerous consequences of cancer.

Causes of thyroid cancer

Modern professionals do not have accurate data, what are the causes of thyroid cancer. Identified certain conditions that influence the emergence and development of pathology:

  • the radiation exposure;
  • frequent use of radiotherapy in cervical and head region;
  • stressful situation;
  • occupational hazards;
  • regional affiliation;
  • being in the risk group (elderly person, child);
  • chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland;
  • family history (cancer, polyps);
  • bad habits;
  • adenoma of thyroid;
  • changes in hormonal balance.

The types of thyroid cancer

When a person is at risk, has on the thyroid gland, a cyst or other symptoms, he requires to consult a doctor about prevention. If you do not follow preventive measures, the disease may occur. It is important to determine in diagnosing the degree of damage of the organ and the types of thyroid cancer. The classification rates affect the prognosis of cure.

Papillary thyroid cancer

The most frequent malignant tumor is papillary thyroid cancer. The name comes from the Latin word, which translates as «flesh» and describes the appearance of formations. The development of a microcarcinoma is slow. They occur in most cases on one of the lobes of the organ, but sometimes there is bilateral involvement. The metastatic disease can give in the lymph nodes located in the neck. The thyroid carcinoma has a favorable prognosis, because most of the typical 25-year survival.

Medullary thyroid cancer

A kind of malignant tumor, which is dangerous because it begins to form metastases before discovery of the lesion – medullary thyroid cancer. In this form can present with liver, lung, trachea, lymph nodes and other internal organs. The blood test detects tumor markers in thyroid cancer. For this cancer is characterized by high aggressiveness, rapid spread.

Follicular thyroid cancer

The deficit of foods containing iodine, healthy cells can develop follicular thyroid cancer. Carcinoma of this type in frequency of occurrence is slightly inferior to papillary. The disease rarely forms metastases in other organs (parathyroid gland, bones, lymph nodes, and lungs), it concentrates in the thyroid. Prediction of cure is not as favorable as with papillary.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer

The most unfavorable prognosis of survival has anaplastic thyroid cancer. The diagnosis is rare, occurs in elderly patients on the basis of nodular goiter (hyperplastic changes). The tumor is characterized by rapid growth, proliferation, lesions of the neck. Development provokes dyspnea, difficulty swallowing, dysphonia. End with death of the disease can in a year.

Thyroid cancer – symptoms

A malignant thyroid tumor is detected at early stages because the body is on the neck in the front part of it and all the changes it well be felt. The first sign is the formation of small-sized burl that looks like a hill with one side of the neck. A lump may in the early stages to have elasticity, to not have pain. Over time, the knot takes on the density, becomes greater. The increase in lymph node in neck region may indicate the beginning of the development of the disease.

The later stage men and women have the following symptoms of thyroid cancer associated with the growth of tumors:

  • difficulty swallowing;
  • cough of undetermined origin;
  • jugular vein;
  • pain in the neck, which gives the ear;
  • shortness of breath, difficulty breathing;
  • hoarseness;
  • the feeling of a lump in the throat.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer in women

Women more often than men are exposed to development of disease. There are the following symptoms of thyroid cancer in women:

  • the abrupt change of body weight;
  • worsening of mood without cause;
  • hair loss, breakage;
  • excessive dryness of the skin;
  • pain in the joints;
  • jumps in blood pressure;
  • periodically, husky, hoarse voice;
  • fevers;
  • decrease in sexual desire;
  • swollen submandibular lymph nodes;
  • a small seal on the neck;
  • the decreased concentration and memory;
  • sleep disorders are sudden in nature;
  • excessive fatigue.

Symptoms of thyroid cancer in men

Experts identify some of the causes of thyroid cancer in men:

  • mood swings;
  • the emergence of insomnia;
  • the increase in pressure;
  • causeless anxiety;
  • trembling of the hands;
  • erectile dysfunction;
  • shortness of breath;
  • frequent urination;
  • the formation of palpable nodes in the neck;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes.

Treatment of thyroid cancer

Modern experts prescribe the treatment of thyroid cancer based on diagnostic studies:

  • Scintigraphy, which helps to determine the stage of the process of formation of the tumor.
  • Thyroid ultrasound facilitates the recognition of the size and number of tumors.
  • Differencial MRI of the tumor in terms of purity, or of malignancy.
  • Biopsy of the thyroid gland is the main method of determining a cancerous tumor.

Modern endocrinology offers a number of ways that are able to cope with the disease: surgery, radioiodine therapy, hormonal treatment, chemotherapy and radiation. To achieve a high cure rate of patients, is a combination of several methods. Removal of the thyroid gland is the most radical way. Thyroidectomy can be total or Subtotal.

If the tumor is concentrated in one lobe, it is withdrawal, along with the isthmus. The organ is removed is if you hit both parts of it. When this occurs, the interference to other systems:

  • dissection jugular vein;
  • removal of the neck muscles;
  • excision of regional lymph nodes.

Therapy with radioactive iodine is used in addition to surgical methods. This method helps to destroy the metastases and the remaining pathogenic tissue. Such impact can get rid of MTS fully at their location in the lungs. Control a relapse of the disease occurs by monitoring the content of thyroglobulin in the blood. If the metastasis has spread widely and continues to progress, applied radiation or chemotherapy.

After the operation the patient is shown to undergo periodic special inspection. Monitoring is carried out to establish the presence or absence of the cancer recurrence. Such a study include:

  • Ultrasound;
  • scintigraphy;
  • a chest x-ray;
  • checking the blood indicators of cancer.

Thyroid cancer – prognosis after surgery

Determined by the prognosis of thyroid cancer by stage of tumor development at the beginning of the treatment. A crucial role has histological structure:

  • Lymphoma and aplastic adenocarcinoma the probability of lethal consequences is almost absolute.
  • Medullary (capillary) malignant tumor of the thyroid gland is characterized by rapid growth of metastases in various organs, has a low survival rate.
  • Follicular tumor of the thyroid gland is defined by a lower aggressiveness in comparison with the above.
  • Papillary thyroid cancer is the most optimistic forecast, the probability of cure is 90%.

Video: symptoms of thyroid cancer