Pulmonary hypertension — causes and symptoms, rate and diagnosis, extent and treatment of the syndrome

For life-threatening pathological condition of pulmonary arterial hypertension – over time is only getting worse. Blood pressure in the arteries connecting the heart and lungs, increases, which poses a risk to human health. Proper treatment helps to alleviate symptoms, the patient was able to feel better.

What is pulmonary hypertension

The disease is considered a type of high pressure, the improvement of which can damage the right part of the heart muscle. This makes it less effective: deteriorating blood circulation and the cardiovascular system fails to supply oxygen to the body. Pulmonary hypertension is a syndrome of diseases that cause narrowing or blockage of the arterioles and capillaries in the respiratory organs. The heart receives a double load, which increases pressure in the lungs. Over time, the main muscle becomes weaker, which can lead to heart failure.

The normal pressure in the pulmonary artery is:

  • moderate – 12-14 mm Hg.St;
  • systolic – 22-25 mm Hg.St.

Primary pulmonary hypertension

The disease is characterized by some anomalies: pulmonary artery pressure begins to increase without apparent reason. Also increases vascular resistance. This can lead to heart disease and even death. LH is divided into initial venous thromboembolic and mesh types. In the classification by ICD 10 code she received 127.0.

Medical scientists still can not understand the exact cause of the disease. However, the study has identified some of the disease that can give impetus to the development of such disorders as primary pulmonary hypertension. This:

  • the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV);
  • gene mutation;
  • portal hypertension;
  • chronic disease of the heart.

Secondary pulmonary hypertension

This complication, which occurs in people with chronic insufficiency of the left ventricle, obtained as a result of dysregulation of vascular smooth muscle tone. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is a remodeling of the vessel wall with identification of abnormalities of elastic fibers and medial hypertrophy. It includes systolic and diastolic dysfunction. This process leads to thickening of the vascular walls and capillaries.

The degree of pulmonary hypertension

LH is a progressive disease which is difficult to stop. Treatment can only ease the pain and relieve some symptoms. It all depends on the severity of the disease. Below are the classification of pulmonary hypertension:

  1. Degree I: at the initial stage of the disease brings no discomfort. When you exercise symptoms of LH remain invisible.
  2. Degree II: physical activity can cause fatigue, weakness, breathing problems, chest pain.
  3. Degree III: in static position, the patient feels fine. However, physical stress provokes fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, arrhythmia, pain in the solar plexus.
  4. Degree IV: the person should not exercise, because breathing is difficult even at rest.

Causes of pulmonary hypertension

In most cases, hypertension of pulmonary artery occurs due to a mutation in the gene. The disease may be asymptomatic and manifest many years later. Idiopathic disease arises spontaneously. The main causes hypertension in the lungs given below:

  • HIV;
  • drugs (cocaine or methamphetamine);
  • liver disease (cirrhosis);
  • tuberculosis;
  • lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and other autoimmune diseases;
  • congenital heart disease;
  • angina;
  • vasculitis;
  • lung disease: emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary fibrosis;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • sleep apnea;
  • taking medications to suppress appetite;
  • hormonal therapy.

The symptoms of pulmonary hypertension

For a long time the person may not notice his illness. However, with age, can manifest the following signs of pulmonary hypertension:

  • hoarse voice;
  • dry cough;
  • discomfort in the abdominal area;
  • pain in sternum;
  • fainting;
  • swelling of feet and ankles;
  • pain in the liver area;
  • heart palpitations;
  • hemoptysis;
  • a hypertensive crisis.

Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension

LH is more common in adults, ranging from 24 years. Young women aged 26 to 40 at risk the most. The disease is an aggravating factor in pregnancy, because it can be transmitted to a newborn. Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension can take some time: the symptoms of the disease too similar to other signs of damage to the heart and lungs.

You can see the signs of pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography, but to confirm the obtained result needs further examination. Should always consult with a pulmonologist and a cardiologist. Specialists may prescribe the following tests:

  • the test of physical endurance;
  • Echo;
  • blood test;
  • CT of lungs and heart;
  • electrocardiogram;
  • lung biopsy;
  • chest x-ray.

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

Diagnosis of pH is for doctors some difficulties. Often they begin to treat the patient too late. However, the timely detection of the disease leads to complete recovery, if we consider the primary type of the disease. For patients secondary LH, the forecast can be disappointing. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension includes the use of the following medications:

  • diuretics;
  • drugs relaxing the muscles;
  • vasodilating drugs;
  • drugs that can thin the blood.

In the process of recovery the patient will have to reduce the physical load and follow a prescribed diet to allow the pulmonary pressure to normal. You should also reduce consumption of salt, drinking water. This will help to reduce the swelling of limbs. If you treat LH using the above methods failed, you may be assigned to the transplantation of the affected organs.

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension folk remedies

As prevention is to avoid cigarettes, alcohol, more fresh air. To treat the disease is necessary in a complex in a good clinic. Folk remedies for treatment of pulmonary hypertension can only relieve the symptoms. What plants help best:

  1. Bay leaf, steamed with boiling water, excellent for inhalation. Fragrant pair ease breathing and improve health. However, this tool should not be abused.
  2. Infusion of the leaves of sage, mint, Valerian and St. John’s wort will help to bring the pressure back to normal.
  3. A decoction of the ash is used similarly. It is best to use the berries and leaves of the plant.
  4. Pumpkin juice is a sure way to strengthen the immune system and relieve the symptoms LH.

Video: pulmonary hypertension in children