When asymptomatic course of the disease can be sudden cardiac arrest. Scary when it happens to outwardly healthy young people involved in sports. What happens to the myocardium, causing you experience these effects, treated if hypertrophy is necessary to understand.
What is cardiac hypertrophy
This autosomal dominant disease, betrays signs of a hereditary gene mutation affects the heart. It is characterized by the increase of the thickness of the walls of the ventricles. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has a classification code to ICD 10, No. 142. The disease is often asymmetric, are more prone to lose the left ventricle of the heart. When this happens:
- a chaotic arrangement of muscle fibers;
- the involvement of small coronary vessels;
- education areas of fibrosis;
- obstruction of blood flow – obstruction to ejection of blood from the atrium due to the displacement of the mitral valve.
At high loads on the myocardium, caused by illness, sports, or bad habits, begins a defensive reaction of the organism. Heart must handle high volumes of work without increasing the burden per unit mass. Starts to happen payment:
- the increased protein production;
- hyperplasia – increase in the number of cells;
- the increase in muscle mass of the myocardium;
- thickening of the wall.
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy
At long work of the myocardium under load, which is constantly enhanced, there is a pathological form HCM. The hypertrophied heart is forced to adapt to new conditions. Thickening of the myocardium occurs rapidly. In such a situation:
- behind the growth of capillaries and nerves;
- disturbed blood supply;
- the impact of changes of the nervous tissue metabolic processes;
- wear structure of the myocardium;
- changing the ratio of the size of the myocardium;
- occurs systolic and diastolic dysfunction;
- disturbed repolarization.
Cardiac hypertrophy in athletes
Imperceptibly there is an abnormal development of myocardial hypertrophy in athletes. At high physical exertion, the heart pumps large volumes of blood, muscles, adapting to such conditions, increase in size. Hypertrophy becomes dangerous, causing stroke, heart attack, sudden cardiac arrest, in the absence of complaints and symptoms. Do not abruptly quit training to avoid complications.
Sports cardiac hypertrophy has 3 kinds:
- eccentric – muscle changes in proportion characteristic of dynamic activities – swimming, skiing, running long distance;
- concentric hypertrophy remains unchanged ventricular cavity, increased myocardial reads in gaming and static types;
- misc – inherent in the lessons with the simultaneous use of stillness and dynamics – rowing, Cycling, skating.
Cardiac hypertrophy in a child
Possible occurrence of pathologies of the myocardium from the moment of birth. Diagnosis at this age is difficult. Often observe hypertrophic changes of the myocardium in adolescence, when actively growing cells of the cardiomyocyte. Thickening of the anterior and posterior walls occurs before 18 years of age, and then stops. Hypertrophy of the ventricles, the child is not considered a separate disease is a manifestation of numerous ailments. Children with HCM often have:
- heart disease;
- dystrophy of myocardium;
Causes of cardiomyopathy
It is customary to separate primary and secondary causes of hypertrophic development of the myocardium. On first impact:
- viral infection;
- the use of alcohol;
- physical overload;
- excess weight;
- toxic poisoning;
- changes in the body during pregnancy;
- the use of drugs;
- the lack of microelements in the organism;
- autoimmune disorders;
Secondary causes of myocardial hypertrophy provoked by such factors:
- mitral valve insufficiency;
- arterial hypertension;
- heart disease;
- neuromuscular diseases;
- electrolyte imbalance;
- parasitic processes;
- pulmonary disease;
- aortic stenosis;
- a metabolic process;
- defect of the interventricular septum (IVS);
- the lack of oxygen in the blood;
- endocrine pathology.
Hypertrophy of the left ventricle
Most prone to hypertrophy of the wall of the left ventricle. One of the reasons for LVH is high blood pressure, stimulate the myocardium at an accelerated pace. Due to arising overload left ventricular wall and seem to increase in size. In such a situation:
- the lost elasticity of the muscles of the myocardium;
- slows down the blood circulation;
- interferes with the normal functioning of the heart;
- there is a danger of sudden load on it.
Cardiomyopathy of the left ventricle increases the need heart of oxygen, nutrients. Notice changes LVH can be instrumental investigation. Appears the syndrome of small emission – dizziness, fainting. Among the signs accompanying hypertrophy:
- pressure drop.
- pain in the heart;
- high blood pressure;
- poor health;
- shortness of breath at rest;
- heart rate during light loads.
Hypertrophy of the right atrium
The increase in right ventricular wall is not a disease, but a pathology that appears when overload in this Department. It occurs due to large influxes of venous blood from the larger vessels. The cause of hypertrophy can be:
- birth defects;
- the atrial septal defects, in which blood enters simultaneously into the left and right ventricle;
Right ventricular hypertrophy is accompanied by symptoms:
- night cough;
- chest pain;
- shortness of breath without exertion;
- signs of heart failure – swelling of the legs, enlargement of the liver;
- failures of the internal organs;
- lividity of the skin;
- heaviness in the upper quadrant;
- varicose veins on the abdomen.
Hypertrophy of the interventricular septum
One of the signs of the disease – hypertrophy of IVS (interventricular septum). The main reason for this disorders – gene mutations. Hypertrophy of the septum provokes:
- ventricular fibrillation;
- atrial fibrillation;
- problems with the mitral valve;
- ventricular tachycardia;
- violation of the outflow of blood;
- heart failure;
- cardiac arrest.
Dilatation of heart chambers
Hypertrophy of the interventricular septum may trigger an increase in the internal volume of cardiac chambers. This expansion is called dilation of the myocardium. In this position, the heart cannot perform the function of the pump, there are symptoms of arrhythmia, cardiac failure:
- shortness of breath;
- swelling of the feet and hands;
Hypertrophy of the heart symptoms
The risk of myocardial disease in an asymptomatic course for a long time. Often diagnosed by chance during medical examinations. With the development of the disease there may be signs of myocardial hypertrophy:
- chest pain;
- abnormal heart rhythm;
- shortness of breath at rest;
- shortness of breath;
Form of cardiomyopathy
It should be noted that the disease is characterized by three forms of hypertrophy, given the gradient of the systolic pressure. Together complies with the obstructive form of HCM. Stand out:
- basal obstruction – rest or 30 mm Hg.
- latent – the quiet state, less than 30 mm Hg – it is characterized by non-obstructive form of HCM;
- labile obstruction – spontaneous intraventricular gradient fluctuations.
Cardiac hypertrophy – classification
For convenience in medicine to distinguish between these types of myocardial hypertrophy:
- obstructive – the top of the partitions throughout the area;
- obstructive symptoms are mild, diagnosed accidentally;
- symmetric – affects all walls of the left ventricle;
- apical – heart muscle increased only from above;
- asymmetric – affects only one side wall.
The LVH is the extension of the cavity of the ventricle and at the same time uniform, proportional seal muscle of the myocardium, caused by the growth of cardiomyocytes. With the General increase in mass of the heart relative wall thickness remains unchanged. Eccentric cardiac hypertrophy can affect:
- the interventricular septum;
- a side wall.
For a concentric type of the disease characterized by the preservation of the volume of the internal cavity with increasing mass of the heart due to the uniform increase in wall thickness. There is another name for this phenomenon – symmetric hypertrophy of the myocardium. The illness occurs as a result of hyperplasia of organelles of miocardiotita, triggered by high blood pressure. This development is typical for arterial hypertension.
Cardiac hypertrophy – grade
For proper assessment of the patient with the disease of HCM introduced a special classification that takes into account the thickening of the myocardium. By how increased the size of the walls when the heart, in cardiology allocated to 3 degrees. Depending on the thickness of the myocardium, in millimeters defines the stages:
- moderate – 11-21;
- average 21-25;
- severe over 25.
Diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
At the initial stage, with little development of hypertrophy of the wall, to identify the disease very difficult. The process begins with a diagnostic survey of the patient, determine:
- the presence of pathology in the family;
- the death of one of them at a young age;
- the fact of radiation exposure;
- external signs by visual inspection;
- the values of blood pressure;
- indicators in the blood and urine tests.
Is used, the new field of genetic diagnosis of myocardial hypertrophy. Helps to set the parameters with HCM the potential of hardware and radiological methods:
- ECG detects indirect signs – arrhythmias, hypertrophy of the sections;
- x – ray shows increase in the circuit;
- Ultrasound assesses the thickness of the myocardium, impaired blood flow;
- echocardiography – records the location of hypertrophy, impaired diastolic dysfunction;
- MRI gives a three-dimensional image of the heart, sets the degree of thickness of the myocardium;
- ventriculography – explores contractile function.
How to treat cardiomyopathy
The main goal of treatment – return of the myocardium to the optimal size. Activities aimed at this are complex. Hypertrophy can be treated when early diagnosis is made. An important part in the system of recovery of the myocardium is lifestyle, which involves:
- abstinence from alcohol;
- Smoking cessation;
- weight loss;
- the exclusion of drugs;
- limiting the intake of salt.
Drug treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy includes the use of drugs that:
- reduce the pressure – ACE inhibitors, receptor antagonists angiotensin;
- regulate cardiac rhythm antiaritmiki;
- relax heart drugs with a negative ionotropic effect, beta-blockers, calcium antagonists of the verapamil group;
- output fluid – diuretics;
- improve the strength of muscles – inotropy;
- with the threat of infective endocarditis – antibiotic prophylaxis.
Effective method of treatment that changes the course of excitation and ventricular contraction, dual – chamber pacing with a short atrioventricular delay. More complex cases – severe asymmetric hypertrophy of IVS, a latent obstruction, the lack of effect of the medicine is require for the regression of the participation of surgeons. To save the patient’s life help:
- the installation of the defibrillator;
- implantation of a pacemaker;
- rezortsina septal myectomy;
- excision of part of the interventricular septum;
- transcatheter septal alcohol ablation.
Cardiomyopathy – treatment of folk remedies
On the recommendation of the attending cardiologist can complement the main course taking herbal remedies. Folk treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy involves the use of viburnum berries without heat treatment at 100 g per day. It is useful to eat flax seeds, positively acting on heart cells. Recommend:
- take a spoonful of seeds;
- add boiling water – a liter;
- hold on a water bath for 50 minutes;
- to filter;
- drink per day – the dose is 100 g.
Good feedback has in the treatment of HCM oatmeal infusion for regulation of the muscles of the heart. Prescription healers required:
- oats – 50 grams;
- water – 2 glasses;
- to heat to 50 degrees;
- add 100 g of kefir;
- pour radish juice – half a glass;
- stir, stand 2 hours, drain;
- put 0,5 tbsp. honey;
- dosage – 100 g three times per day before meals;
- the course is 2 weeks.
Video: hypertrophy of the heart muscle