Helminthiasis is perhaps the most unpleasant types of diseases affecting man. They affect the body not only physically, causing disgust, fear. Let’s find out what is the Echinococcus, should we be afraid of this problem, and how to detect and cure.
What is echinococcosis
Threat echinococcosis is a chronic, parasitic disease. Infection occurs from the larvae of a flat tapeworm echinococcus granulosus, which is often identified with its multi-relative – Alveococcus multilocularis. The Echinococcus parasite in the liver, the lungs, less often – other organs and tissues, gets inside ingestion or inhalation of small eggs of the parasite. Can be transmitted via rats, domestic dogs and cats, large farm animals, breeding cycles in the body – continuous.
Diagnosis of echinococcosis
Often detect this disease can be difficult, because the symptoms of echinococcosis in humans are often similar to other diseases and clinical manifestations are not too pronounced. If someone from family members or close associates of the patient, whether adult or child, moved echinococcosis, it is an occasion for a detailed examination. Laparoscopy to determine this infection to hold very dangerous, because the probability of infecting the neighboring organs. In addition, for the diagnosis of echinococcosis of the use of methods such as:
- x-rays of a given body;
- laboratory research, analysis of the Echinococcus;
- a computer tomograph;
- angiography of individual sections of the abdominal arteries;
- serological methods for the detection of antibodies;
- scanning with radioactive isotopes (effective in the liver).
The symptoms of echinococcosis
Initially the disease is asymptomatic, and can remain in this state for very long. Signs of tapeworm in humans begin to appear with increasing hydatid cyst: it compresses the adjacent organs, or cause tissue inflammation. This provokes an allergic reaction of the body to the presence of the parasite. So, if you suspect hydatid disease – symptoms in humans are:
- dull pain in the right upper quadrant;
- loss of appetite, diarrhea and odor, nausea and vomiting;
- produmyvayte tumor in the right hypochondrium (with localization in the lungs can be detected only by fluoroscopy or x-ray);
- deterioration can occur rupture or suppuration of a cyst, abscess, jaundice: symptoms differ according to the type of complications, but mostly are characterized by severe fever, chills, weakness, fever, abdominal pain.
Hydatid cyst of the brain
Hydatid worm affects the brain is extremely rare. Infection can occur in this way: liver – lungs – blood flow – the brain. The symptoms appear very quickly, because minimal inflammation of the brain is shown immediately:
- the jump in temperature;
- the appearance of pain;
- the increase in intracranial pressure;
Distinguish between solitary and ravmone infection of the brain: in the first case may be formed of separate cysts, the second – clusters of bubbles. Such hydatid bubble brain is inflammation of brain tissue, its symptoms resemble a manifestation of a tumor and accompanied by epileptic seizures, delirium, temporary mental disorder and impairments.
Tapeworm in the liver
The most common disease – hydatid cyst of the liver. The disease affects adults, children, but more often those engaged in agriculture and has direct contact with the animals. Also a carrier can be a dog that rolled around in fertilizer, the grass with the remains of excrement, or contracted from other dogs: worm eggs excreted with the faeces of a sick animal. See several stages of development Echinococcus in the liver:
- no symptoms;
- General fatigue, irritability, fever, rash;
- vomiting, diarrhea.
If the cyst is too big and perelavlivaet intrahepatic flow of bile becomes stagnant and develops jaundice. On palpation the liver is a dense, clearly detectable elastic tumor. Instead of echinococcosis of the liver may be mistakenly diagnosed with viral hepatitis – due to the fact that the symptoms are very similar, so it is important to pass all the tests to verify the accuracy of the results.
You can catch unilocular Echinococcus in direct or indirect contact with excreta of infected animals. Mostly intermediate hosts are cattle, sheep, goats. Recover from parasitic forms Echinococcus granulosus simpler: it more often than others found in our regions and in rare cases, a person faces death.
All of the above symptoms belong to the unilocular Echinococcus. However, there is also a multi-chamber, or alveolar – echinococus multilocularis. This kind of worms are much more dangerous, its construction is complicated and the pathogenesis is characterized by a special severity. Possible metastasis to the brain, lungs, and other organs, death. The carriers are wild animals from the family Canidae (wolves, foxes, coyotes). To person, the parasites reach on the scheme of transmission from domestic animals, which had contact with infectious individuals or corpses.
To be infected with the larval form of echinococcosis hydatidosis not only from livestock, and dogs. It penetrates, if you eat fruit or berries, which contain eggs of the worm by drinking from a contaminated source. Parasitic organisms settle on the fur, so you need to always wash their hands after contact with animals. Raw meat can be a source of disease if it was received in the places of uncontrolled slaughter, where not met sanitary standards.
Hydatid cyst of the lung
The lung is typical for 30% of cases. To detect the hydatid cyst of the lung easier than other organs, because a routine chest x-rays helps to identify it. In the early stages of the maturation cycle prescribed medication, later imply surgery, but the main thing is to treat the problem promptly and efficiently. The main characteristics of the disease:
- the growth of the cyst: cough, sparest, sputum with blood through the mouth;
- you can find bulging cyst between ribs;
- possible complications such as pleural effusion, inflammation, in the case of the cyst rupture into the pleural cavity may be acute pain, fever, anaphylactic shock.
Hydatid disease of the spleen
With echinococcosis of the spleen, it becomes dark, livid color, if Echinococcus bubbles a lot – it becomes lumpy and flabby. To identify the disease on ultrasound or computed tomography. When detected, it is necessary to carry out the operation immediately, as in Echinococcus of the spleen grows rapidly and may rupture into the abdominal cavity, which threatens serious consequences.
The clinical picture of cystic echinococcosis is characterized by the formation of cysts, or hydatid bubbles, which can reach sizes up to 9 cm Before the larva will be fixed in one place, it can destroy tissue, walking the path from one organ to another via the blood stream. Hydatid cyst looks like a round or oval swelling, filled with yellow liquid. Getting eggs in the body begins a new life cycle of the helminth, it grows into a cyst. If it is not removed timely, it breaks out of the larvae, infecting other organs.
Echinococcosis in children
Not so common hydatid disease in children: it is found mainly in the southern agricultural economies. In Northern latitudes, the incidence is less, but when infected by the worm affects the child’s body than an adult. It is important to undergo routine examination of the child, then to detect the hydatid cyst will be easy. As a prevention you need to:
- carefully monitor the hygiene of Pets and children;
- not to allow the dogs to your food and utensils;
- regularly dehelminthation;
- to ensure that the child wash hands after contact with animals.