Transcript of blood: biochemical and table rules from adults

A blood test is the most common method of examination in medicine, helping to establish an accurate diagnosis. How to understand what the numbers mean in issued result? To help with interpretation of blood tests the attending physician, but having a General idea about the real picture of the health status of able anyone. Using the information gathered in the article, you will be able to decode the received data of a blood test.

How to decrypt CBC detailed

Any diagnosis starts with what is assigned to the General analysis of blood (KLA), which is very informative, although the most simple. According to him the doctor will be able to follow the dynamics of the chosen method of treatment. Indicators of blood composed of leukocytes, leukocyte formula with a breakdown of red blood cells, hemoglobin, ESR, platelets, coagulation to coagulation, hematocrit and the color index. To understand what will tell the doctor, you need to have an idea, what do all these names:

Расшифровка анализа крови: общего, биохимического и таблица нормы у взрослых

  • leukocytes (WBC) – blood cells white in color, designed to perform protection of the body;
  • immature granulocytes (IG) – a group of cells are leukocytes that have specific granules in their structure;
  • leucoformula – the ratio of leukocytes of different form each other;
  • red blood cells (RBC) – blood cells the red color that saturate tissues with oxygen;
  • the clotting speed of blood clot formation at the site of unauthorized damage to a blood vessel;
  • platelets (PLT) blood plates;
  • ESR – the rate at which red blood cells settle; shows how many of the proteins found in blood plasma;
  • hematocrit (HCT) – the percentage of red blood cells;
  • lymphocytes (LYM) – a kind of white blood cells responsible for the condition of immunity;
  • color indicator – indicates the hemogram how much hemoglobin is in red blood cells;
  • hemoglobin (HGB) – animal protein contained in red blood cells, which is red in color, is a Transporter of oxygen throughout the body. For women (115-145 g/l) this figure is lower than for men (130-170g/l). Women who are in an interesting position have average slightly lower (110-120 g/l).

Combined these norms are indicators of the blood test are shown in the summary table:

Name of the indicator

The norm

Note

Lymphocytes LYM

25-40%

Increase of influenza, rubella, hepatitis, toxoplasmosis. Reducing AIDS, serious infectious disease.

Leukocytes WBC

4 -9 *109/l

Above normal – the presence of infection below the blood disease.

Erythrocytes RBC

11,5-14,5%

The percentage of large and small erythrocytes.

Red blood cells MCV

80-100 FL

Mean corpuscular volume.

Hemoglobin HGB

140-230 g/l newborns;

100-140 g/l from one year to 2 years;

110-155 g/l 3-16 years;

110-170 g/l adults.

Physiological (menstrual cycle) in women is lower than men’s.

Hemoglobin MCH

25-35 PG

The GB contents in the erythrocyte.

Hemoglobin MCHC

25-375 g/l

The concentration of hemoglobin.

Color index

0,7-0,95 children up to three years;

0,8-1,1 4 to 13 years;

0,85-1,13 adults;

The increase in hypothyroidism, lack of vitamin B12.

Less than normal in anemia.

Reticulocytes RTC

Of 0.15 – 1.1% of children;

0,25-1,8 % men;

0,11 -2,07 % women.

Young erythrocytes.

Platelets, MPV, PLT

150-385 * 109/l for pregnant women;

170-330 * 109/l adults;

100-425* 109/l infants;

185-310 * 109/l children over 1 year.

Increased after hemorrhage, surgery, on cancer.

Lowering during pregnancy, blood disorders and infections.

ESR

Up to 14 mm/h in women;

to 9 mm/h in men.

The increase of the plasma normal – inflammation.

The heterogeneity of platelets PDW

10-15%

Deviations in anemia, cancer, inflammation.

Thrombocrit (PCT)

0,12-0,40

Unstable index, dependent on time of day, season, physical activity, hormonal background.

Stab neutrophils

5-11% for infants;

1-5% for children and adults

The increase in the sticks with angina, sepsis, abscess.

Decrease – anemia, liver disease, kidney.

Segmented neutrophils

17-70 % of children of different ages;

40-60% of adults.

The figure is reduced in anemia, a chemical poisoning.

Elevated in leukemia, viral diseases, tuberculosis, diseases of the thyroid gland.

Eosinophils

1,0-4,9%

Below normal in purulent infections, chronic stress.

Inflated Allergy, infectious diseases.

Basophils

0,4-1,0%

Below normal in pregnancy, stress, hyperthyroidism.

Above normal blood diseases, gastrointestinal tract, allergies.

Hematocrit HCT

38-49% of men;

35-44% women.

Below normal in anemia before childbirth women swelling.

The high norm of dehydration, burns.

Monocytes absolute value of MON

0,0-0,09 *109/l adults;

0,05-1,1 *109/l children.

The increase in infectious diseases, tuberculosis, leukemia.

Decrease – anemia.

Table decrypting the biochemical analysis of blood

Venous blood biochemistry taken in the morning with the condition that the patient last 8-10 hours without eating. The biochemical analysis will allow the doctor to judge the presence of inflammatory processes throughout the body, violations of the percentage content of trace elements. Standards tests:

Name of the indicator

The norm

Note

Protein total

62-87 g/l

The deviation of the norm – cancer, rheumatism.

Glucose (analysis of C-peptide)

A 3.1-5.4 mmol/l

The rise in the rate of sugar – history of diabetes.

Urea nitrogen

The 2.4-8.4 mmol/l

Increase of residual nitrogen – congestive heart failure, kidney disease, tumors.

Creatinine

52-98 µmol/l women;

60-116 µmol/l men.

Elevated in dehydration, excessive meat consumption, hyperthyroidism.

Reduced by a strict diet, vegans, diseases of the liver.

Cholesterol

The 3.4-6.5 mmol/l

Increased liver disease, cardiovascular system.

Bilirubin

5,0-20,0 mmol/l

Elevated in hepatitis.

Alpha-Amylase

5,0-60 u/l children from birth to 2 years;

25-130 u/l adults and children over 2 years.

Is increased when pancreatite.

Alat (ALT)

To 30 u/l in women;

up to 42 u/l in men.

Elevated in disorders of the liver.

Alpha-Lipase

27-100 u/l

Inflated the measure in diabetes, peritonitis, renal diseases.

Reduced in hepatitis.

Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)

To 48.5 u/l in women;

to 33.4 u/l in men.

Elevated in diseases of liver, pancreas.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

Up to 38 u/l

Excess damage to the heart muscle, liver cirrhosis.

Phosphatase (alkaline)

To 245 u/l women up to 275 u/l – men.

Excess rate of myocardial lung, kidney, metastasis of cancer to the bones.

Transcript of HIV blood test

The final diagnosis of the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is set only when the moment of contact with an infected person will be held not less than three months. For a more reliable diagnosis, a re-examination of the blood test conducted in six months. The results will be real, provided that the contact is not repeated in the subsequent time.

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is used to determine the DNA of the virus. When detecting infection the result is indicated by the phrase «the reaction is positive,» if HIV is not detected – «a negative reaction». Sometimes when unexperienced technicians or when using the most modern equipment, can be found «leuproreline results.» For confirmation or refutation of these claims, there is an analysis of the F50, which is a specific antibody only in the case of penetration of HIV infection in the body.

Расшифровка анализа крови: общего, биохимического и таблица нормы у взрослых

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Using specific ELISA determined diseases such as HIV, herpes, hepatitis, atypical pneumonia and genital infections. Immunological method shows the structure of antibodies and antigens in quantitative and qualitative terms. ELISA is a common blood test to detect chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, which gives accuracy up to 90%.

The detection of antibodies of immunoglobulin M, G, A will help to correctly diagnose the presence and stage of disease. An ELISA helps to detect the Bacillus Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastrointestinal disease and creates General discomfort. Rheumatoid factor G should not exceed the rate of 30 mu/ml. enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay can be used in diseases associated with allergic reactions.

Расшифровка анализа крови: общего, биохимического и таблица нормы у взрослых

A blood test for thyroid hormones

Laboratory analysis of thyroid hormones helps the doctor to determine how well functioning this important endocrine organ. There are several main parameters by which to navigate, are there failures in the thyroid gland. Analyzer abbreviations main analyses are handed over on the thyroid:

  • TSH – thyroid-stimulating hormone. Produced in the brain (the pituitary gland) and controls the thyroid gland. The norm of 0.45 – 4.10 mu/L.
  • TK total – triiodothyronine. The analysis is carried out in case of hyperthyroidism (excessive thyroid function). The norm of 1.05-3.15 nmol/l in elderly people the norm is underestimated.
  • ТТ4 – thyroxine in common. A deviation from the norm means reducing or increasing the metabolism in the body. The norm for women 71,2 is 142.5 nmol/l for men 60,74 -137,00 nmol/L.
  • TG – thyroglobulin. An indicator of the level of protein in the tissue mass of the thyroid gland should not exceed 60,00 ng/ml.
  • TPO – antibodies to thyroid peroxidase. The rate of no more than 5,65 u/ml.

Serological analysis

Laboratory investigations serological analysis of blood taken from the vein show the presence of antibodies to certain viruses and bacteria. It often refers to infections that are transmitted during sexual contact, HIV infection, chlamydia, measles, hepatitis, herpes. The norm is the complete absence of antibodies to any infectious disease.

Расшифровка анализа крови: общего, биохимического и таблица нормы у взрослых

Transcript of analysis of blood for tumor markers

Blood for tumor markers take for suspected cancer. Any neoplasm is based on the normal cells, but their rate of division exceeds the permissible limits, they begin to «live your life», while the metabolic products of protein nature. The task of deciphering blood test to detect the presence (presence) of a tumor marker, which indicates the presence of cancer. A list of major tumor markers:

  • CA 15-3. Excess of norm of 26.9 u/ml may indicate cancer in the breast.
  • CA — 125. If the figure exceeded 35,0 IU/ml, it is necessary to urgently carry out an additional examination of the ovaries.
  • CA 19-9. Exceeding 500 u/ml indicates problematic changes in the pancreas.
  • DOG. The figure is less than 4.0 ng/ml – prostate healthy.
  • AFP. Hepatic tumor marker. When the result exceeds 15,0 ng/ml may have a neoplasm in the liver.
  • C-reactive protein. The rate of no more than 5 mg/l. pronounced the higher standards in tumors in different parts of the body, rheumatoid arthritis (additionally taken raumprobe).
  • Of NSE. The limit of 12.5 ng/ml is evidence of a cancer of skin, lungs.
  • CEA. At rates over 5.0 ng/ml will require some additional tests. This tumor marker is higher than normal for cancer of the stomach, the urinary ducts, lungs, intestines.

Analysis of allergens

With the increasing growth of references of patients with allergic rash increased demand for analysis by determination of the immunoglobulin that defines the allergens. In a healthy organism, the immunoglobulin has a minimum number. Antibodies that the body produces, detect and neutralize foreign cells. When antibodies join to antigens, the reaction occurs in the form of rashes, itching as it begins to produce serotonin and histamine.

Increased IgE immunoglobulin indicates a predisposition to allergies. After taking samples for analysis, determine the norm, which depends on the age category of the patient. They look like this:

  • 0-200 IU/ml adults and children 10-15 years of age;
  • 0-95 u/ml, from 6 to 9 years;
  • 0-65 IU/ml – from one year to 5 years;
  • 0-12 u/ml – infant.

Расшифровка анализа крови: общего, биохимического и таблица нормы у взрослых

A pregnancy test

The direction to conduct a pregnancy test for women who have delayed menstruation, and rapid test on the urine shows a positive result. You need to check the presence of HCG hormone in the blood, in parallel, by taking a swab from the vagina. To exclude an ectopic pregnancy, the gynecologist appoint to pass a blood test for human chorionic gonadotropin. In the presence of an embryo from a woman, it releases the hormone HCG which 100% indicates the presence of pregnancy. At different times the norm of the hormone will be different:

  • 0-5 IU/ml – absence of pregnancy;
  • 25-300 IU/ml 2 weeks;
  • 1500-100000 IU/ml is 3-9 weeks.

Video advice from Dr. Komarovsky: what is the clinical analysis of blood

The most common and popular blood – common or as it is called by physicians, clinical, handed every person at least once in their life. What can you learn according to his indicators of the taken sample, for what it is, what is the difference between the norms for adults and children male and female, what is WBC? On this and many other interesting video interpretation of Dr. Komarovsky with information about the clinical analysis of blood.