Stomatitis in children: causes, symptoms, treatment

Baby thrush is a fairly common disease. Most often it affects children under three years of age, but there are precedents and older kids. Stomatitis is a painful history, but it is treatable.


Стоматит у детей: причины, симптомы, лечение

What is baby thrush

Under stomatitis refers to the number of diseases that cause inflammation and irritation of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. The name of the disease is derived from Latin word “stoma” (in the mouth).

Stomatitis is the most common disease of the oral cavity in children. This is because the mucous in babies sweet, delicate and susceptible to harmful bacteria.

The disease can occur in mild, moderate and even severe. Ulcers in the oral cavity is the primary symptom of stomatitis.

Causes of stomatitis

    Causes of stomatitis in children may be different:

    • severe burns to mucous membranes of the mouth;
    • failure to comply with rules of hygiene;
    • viral disease;
    • hit in the mouth fungal infection;
    • genetic predisposition to the disease;
    • viral herpes;
    • a weak immune system;
    • children’s habit to put things in their mouth;
    • a strong temperature difference.

    Varieties of stomatitis

    Depending on the source of the disease thrush happens:

    • fungal;
    • bacterial;
    • virus;
    • allergic;
    • traumatic;
    • aphthous (autoimmune).

    Depending on the form of stomatitis may be different causes of the disease. If the doctor diagnosed bacterial (infectious) stomatitis, the cause of the disease is often a complication of severe sore throats, otitis media or pneumonia. The typical symptom is a thick yellow crust on the lips and a slight fever. Most often pathogens are Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.

    Viral or herpetic stomatitis is the most common in children. Method of infection – airborne droplets and through toys and household items. Mostly this disease affects children aged one to four years.

    The disease starts like the common cold, but with a rash on the lips and small ulcers on the tongue and inside of the cheeks. Ulcers are oval or circular in shape, from them comes an unpleasant smell when peeling and bleeding. Oral mucosa is red and swollen. If herpetic stomatitis becomes protracted form lesions can burst, forming a bright red erosion.

    This is a very unpleasant kind of illness, as can occur in severe form, accompanied by intoxication. Viral stomatitis in children can still occur due to other viral diseases (chickenpox, measles).

    Fungal stomatitis is most common in kids under the age of 1 year. It is caused by a yeast-like fungus Candida. Milk or formula remaining in the mouth of crumbs after feeding is a great breeding ground for Candida fungi. Because of the constant white plaque in the oral cavity such stomatitis is often called thrush. If the RAID fails, the baby is cranky and refuses to eat is a reason to see a pediatrician.

    Baby allergic stomatitis can be an individual reaction to certain foods, pollen, animal dander or medications. In case of detection of the allergen it should be removed to avoid more severe body reaction (anaphylactic shock). The main symptoms of child thrush — edema of oral mucosa, itching, pain.

    Traumatic stomatitis is associated with lesions of the oral mucosa. It can be: biting, burns, damage to the sharp edges of the subject. As a result of injuries you receive wound, abrasion, or ulcer. In this case, is the accession of bacterial infection with formation of pus.

    Aphthous stomatitis in children – it is mostly autoimmune disease. Its characteristic symptom is the formation of the AFL (sores with round edges).

    Diagnosis and treatment of stomatitis in children

    First the doctor (dentist or pediatrician) examines a child and makes a diagnosis. Usually microbial, traumatic and aphthous stomatitis is diagnosed after a routine inspection.

    To identify the causative agent needs to conduct a series of laboratory tests. This takes the scrape (smear) from the affected oral mucosa and sent for review.

    If the child develops bacterial, or fungal aphthous stomatitis, you need to consult a pediatric endocrinologist, allergist-immunologist and gastroenterologist. You may need to pass additional tests:

    • the analysis of a feces on eggs of worms;
    • feces on a dysbacteriosis;
    • to conduct a study of blood sugar levels in the blood.

    A method of treatment of children’s disease depends on the variety of the disease. Is local therapy, selected a course of drugs to eliminate the causative agent of the disease and relieving symptoms (swelling, pain, sores).

    Necessarily diet. During treatment it is necessary to remove from the child’s diet of all the food, irritating the mucous membrane of the mouth. Fall under the ban:

    • sharp;
    • salt;
    • sour;
    • smoked;
    • fast food;
    • too solid food.

    Food should be warm, liquid or semi-liquid consistency. After every meal need to be sure to rinse your mouth out to avoid disease exacerbation or accession of a secondary infection. Useful to practice antiseptic gargle three to four times a day.

    It is best to avoid frequent snacking, so as not to injure once again the mucous membranes. It’s more a warm drink.

    When eating, children, patients with stomatitis often experience pain and discomfort, they become cranky, bad sleep. For pain you can ask the doctor to prescribe a special ointment that will ease the condition and make feeding less painful.

    During treatment, stomatitis children are encouraged to take vitamins to boost immunity and strengthen the body’s defenses to reduce the risks of disease recurrence in the future.

    Thrush is a very unpleasant disease, greatly reducing the quality of life of the child. So no need to self-medicate, following the advice of friends or information from the Internet. Please, doctor, thus you will avoid complications and speed up treatment of the child.

    In advanced cases there may be complications of stomatitis in the form of inflammation, which is from the mouth can go into the skin of the face, lips or inside of the body, there is a risk of secondary infections.

    Against this background, can develop severe General condition, accompanied by fever, General intoxication, lesions of the nervous system, seizures.

    A common mistake parents – lubrication of ulcers Zelenka or hydrogen peroxide. This can cause burning of the mucosa and exacerbate the condition of the child. For the treatment of mucosa, the use of special ointments («Oksolina», «Acyclovir», «Golocal»).

    Another popular myth, especially among the older generation, treatment of stomatitis with honey. It is dangerous for the occurrence of allergic reactions and deterioration of the General condition of the patient.

    Any type of stomatitis is an infectious disease, so to avoid infection of other family members, it is better to temporarily restrict their communication with the sick child. The child should be separate utensils and hygiene items.

    In the nursery you need to do every day wet cleaning with disinfectants. Make sure that the child is not touched by the hands of the sores and do not stick your fingers in your mouth. In this case, there is a risk of transmitting the disease to the mucous eye.

    Treatment of the stomatitis can take from one week to one month. It all depends on the type and severity of the disease and the age of the child and its fortresses of immunity.

    Prevention of stomatitis

    It is important to prevent stomatitis, particularly for children already ill with stomatitis, because there is a risk of relapse. The main task is to teach children the basic norms and rules of hygiene. Teach your child to wash their hands before eating and after walking, do not drag in the mouth items, brush your teeth twice a day.

    Periodically wash your toys with hot water and antibacterial soap. Utensils, pacifiers and teethers should also be clean.

    Children’s toys should be safe, with no sharp edges and harmful dyes.

    Check the condition of the oral mucosa, especially in children up to three years. After the child has cut his first teeth a few times a year to show a pediatric dentist.

    In the children’s diet should be sufficient amount of foods rich in vitamins and minerals. To strengthen the immune system, parents need to take care of the physical development of the child. Sports, tempering, vitamin supplements and proper nutrition will help to improve the health of the child.

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