A huge glowing ball called the Sun, still hides many mysteries. None of the vehicles created by man, not able to reach its surface. Therefore, all information about the closest star to us is obtained by observations from Earth and earth orbit. Only on the basis of physical laws, calculations and computer modeling scientists have identified what makes up the Sun.
The chemical composition of the Sun
Spectral analysis of sunlight showed that most in our star of hydrogen (73% by weight of stars) and helium (25%). For the remaining elements (iron, oxygen, Nickel, nitrogen, silicon, sulfur, carbon, magnesium, neon, chromium, calcium, sodium) account for only 2%. All the substances discovered in the Sun, there is on Earth and on other planets, which indicates their common origin. The average density of the Sun is 1.4 g/cm3.
How to study the Sun
The sun is «matryoshka» with multiple layers having different composition and density, they undergo various processes. In the usual spectrum of the human eye observation of the stars is impossible, but in the establishment of the spectroscopes, telescopes, radio telescopes and other devices, retaining the ultraviolet, infrared, x-ray radiation from the Sun. From the Earth the most effective is the observation during a solar Eclipse. In this short period astronomers worldwide are studying the corona, prominences, chromosphere and various phenomena occurring on the only available for such detailed study the star.
The Structure Of The Sun
Crown — the Sun’s outer layers. She has a very low density, because of this it can be seen only during an Eclipse. The thickness of the outer atmosphere is uneven, so from time to time in her holes. Through these holes in space at a speed of 300-1200 m/s swoops solar wind — a powerful stream of energy that the earth is the cause of the Aurora Borealis and magnetic storms.
Chromosphere — the layer of gases, reaching a thickness of 16 thousand In km it is the convection of hot gases, which, coming off from the surface of the lower layer (the photosphere), again lie back. They «burn» the crown and form the solar wind streams up to 150 thousand km.
The photosphere is a dense opaque layer thickness of 500-1 500 km in which there are the strongest firestorm with a diameter of up to 1 thousand km. the temperature of the gases of the photosphere — 6 000 OS. They absorb energy from the underlying layer and it is isolated in the form of heat and light. The structure of the photosphere is reminiscent of pellets. Gaps in the layer are perceived as spots on the Sun.
Convective zone thickness 125-200 thousand km — on the Sunny shell in which gases continuously exchange energy with the radiation area is heated, rises to the photosphere and cooled, back down again for a new portion of energy.
The radiation zone has a thickness of 500 thousand km, and very high density. Here the substance is bombarded by gamma rays, which are converted into less radioactive ultraviolet (UV) and x — (X) rays.
The crust, or core — solar «boiler», which suffers a proton-proton fusion reactions by which star and receives energy. The hydrogen atoms turn into helium at a temperature of 14 x 10 6 degree OS. Here Titanic pressure — trillion kg per cubic cm per Second here turns to 4.26 million tons of hydrogen into helium.