Protective forces of the organism aimed at maintaining its stable state and the destruction of pathogenic agents. Special cells fight pests and facilitate their withdrawal from the internal environment. It happens that in the body is broken, and its own cells begin to be perceived as alien. In science, such phenomena are called auto-immune diseases: in simple words, the body destroys itself. Over the years, the number of patients with this diagnosis is only growing.
What is autoimmune disease
The essence of the above phenomena is that too active immune system begins to attack the individual tissues, organs or whole systems, which fails in their work. Autoimmunity what it is and why do they occur? The mechanism of origin of such processes is still not fully clear to researchers in the field of medicine. There are a number of causes of failures in the immune system. In addition, it is important to recognize the symptoms, to be able to adjust the course of the disease.
Any pathology in this group launches its own characteristic of autoimmune processes, therefore the symptoms can vary. However, there is a common group of States, which suggests the development of autoimmune diseases:
- Sudden weight loss.
- The increase of body weight in conjunction with fatigue.
- Pain in the joints and muscles for no apparent reason.
- The decline in the quality of mental activity – a person is not concentrating on the job, he has blurred consciousness.
- Common autoimmune reaction – a rash on the skin. Condition is aggravated by exposure to the sun and consumption of certain foods.
- Dry mucous membranes and skin. Primarily affects eyes and mouth.
- The loss of sensitivity. Tingling in the limbs, numbness of any part of the body is often said that the immune system launches its mechanisms.
- The increase of blood coagulability, including the formation of blood clots, spontaneous abortions.
- Strong hair loss, the appearance of bald spots.
- Indigestion, stomach pain, change in color of stool and urine, the appearance of blood in them.
Disease protective systems arise due to activation in the organism of particular cells. What autoantibodies? A group of cells that destroy healthy structural units of the body, mistaking them for alien. The task of specialists is to prescribe laboratory tests and to determine which highly active cells present in the blood. Attending physician in the diagnosis relies on the presence of markers of autoimmune disease – antibodies to substances that are natural to the human body.
Markers of autoimmune diseases include agents that target to neutralize:
- the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae;
- desperatley native DNA;
- extractable nuclear antigens;
- neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens;
- the basal membrane of glomeruli (detects kidney disease);
- Fc-fragment of IgG (rheumatoid factor);
All lymphocytes develop mechanisms to recognize foreign proteins and methods of dealing with them. Some of them resolves native proteins, that is necessary if cell structure is damaged, and it should be eliminated. Protective system strictly controls the activity of lymphocytes, but sometimes they fail, causing autoimmune disease.
Among other possible factors autoimmune disorder scientists produce:
- Gene mutations on the occurrence of which is affected by heredity.
- Suffering a severe infection.
- Penetration into the internal environment of viruses can take the form of body cells.
- Adverse environmental influences – radiation, atmospheric, water and soil pollution by chemicals.
Nearly all cases of autoimmune diseases occur in women, particularly vulnerable women of childbearing age. Men suffer from disorientation of lymphocytes is much less. However, the effects of these pathologies are equally negative for everyone, especially if the patient is not undergoing maintenance therapy. Autoimmune processes threaten the destruction of body tissues (one or more species), uncontrolled growth of an organ, by a change of functions of organs. Some diseases greatly increase the risk of cancer of any localization and infertility.
List of autoimmune diseases
Failures in the protective system of the body can provoke a loss of any organ, so the list of autoimmune pathologies is wide. They damage the hormonal, cardiovascular, nervous system, cause diseases of the musculoskeletal system, affecting the skin, hair, nails and more. At home these diseases cannot be treated, the patient requires the skilled care of the medical staff.
Treatment and predictions of success of therapy are the lungs. The most common diseases in this group are:
- hemolytic anemia;
- autoimmune neutropenia;
- thrombocytopenic purpura.
To treat cutaneous autoimmune diseases patients be dermatologist. A group of these pathologies is wide:
- disease psoriasis (on the photo looks like red, too dry, elevated above the skin spots, which merge with each other);
- isolated cutaneous vasculitis;
- some varieties of alopecia;
- the disease is discoid lupus erythematosus;
- chronic urticaria.
To cure an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland is possible if the time to seek expert help. Two groups of pathologies: the first, in which the increased amount of hormones (Graves ‘ disease, or disease graves.), the second hormone to be less than normal (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). Autoimmune processes in the thyroid gland cause of primary hypothyroidism. Patients are screened by an endocrinologist or family physician. A marker of the autoimmune diseases are thyroid antibodies to TPO (thyroid peroxidase).
The symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis:
- often the disease is asymptomatic and detected during examination of the thyroid gland;
- with the escalation of disease in the hypothyroidism observed apathy, depression, weakness, swollen tongue, hair loss, joint pain, slow speech, etc.
- when the disease of hyperthyroidism the patient is experiencing mood swings, heart palpitations, fever, disruptions in the menstrual cycle, decreased bone strength etc.
Common autoimmune liver disease:
- primary biliary cirrhosis;
- disease autoimmune hepatitis;
- primary sclerosing cholangitis;
- autoimmune cholangitis.
Neurology is the treatment of such diseases:
- syndrome Hyena Bar;
- multiple sclerosis;
- myasthenia gravis.
This group of diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis, affects even children. The process begins with inflammation of the connective tissue, resulting in destruction of the joints. As a result, the patient loses the ability to move. To autoimmune diseases joints still are spondyloarthropathy – inflammation of the joints and intensity.
Methods of treatment
When a specific autoimmune disease is assigned a treatment profile. Issued a direction for a blood test that identifies markers of pathology. Systemic diseases (HIV, systemic lupus erythematosus, sjögren syndrome) should receive consultation of several experts and to approach treatment in a comprehensive manner. This process will take time, but with the proper therapy will allow you to live efficiently and long time.
Primarily the treatment of diseases is aimed at a strong reduction of the activity of the immune system, for which the patient needs to take special drugs – immunosuppressants. These include medicines, such as «Prednisolone», «Cyclophosphamide», «Azathioprine». Doctors weigh factors determining the ratio of the «benefit-harm». The immune system is suppressed, and the state is for the body very dangerous. The patient is under the supervision of experts. The use of immunomodulators, in contrast, is often considered a contraindication in therapy.
With autoimmune therapy
In autoimmune disorders, use of corticosteroid medicines. They also serve to suppress the body’s defenses, but still have anti-inflammatory action. It is undesirable to use these drugs for a long time, because they give a lot of side effects. In some cases, for the treatment of autoimmune diseases resort to transfusion – plasmapheresis. Removed from the blood of highly active antibodies, then poured it back.
It is important to adjust your lifestyle is moderately to ensure hygiene, do not give up walks in Sunny weather, drinking natural green tea, to use less deodorants and perfume products, adhere to the anti-inflammatory diet. Each individual disease permits the use of certain folk remedies, but be sure to consult your doctor, because in different cases one and the same recipe can be disastrous.
Video about the disease of the autoimmune system
Autoimmune diseases is such a wide group of pathologies that we could spend a very long time. Scientists from around the world are still arguing about the origin, treatment methods and manifestations of certain diseases. Turn your attention to the issue of «Be healthy», where experts talk about the nature of autoimmune processes, most common pathologies, recommendations for the preservation of health.