Osteoarthritis ( from the Greek osteo – bone, Arthro – joint) is a joint disease in which there is degenerative loss of cartilage. Under this term fall an entire group of diseases characterized by similar symptoms, the main ones are pain and deformity of the affected joint. All this leads to limited mobility of the affected limb and deterioration in the quality of life of the patient as a whole.
What is osteoarthritis of the knee
Osteoarthritis is a disease, deforming the joints, occurs in a localized form, when one joint is affected, and generalized (polyosteoarthrosis), when struck several parts of the body. The most common forms of this disease even got a separate title. So, there is the concept of «the hip» – the defeat of the hip joint, and the term «osteoarthritis» refers to osteoarthritis of the knee.
The cause of gonarthrosis trauma, inflammation or congenital dysplasia of the joint. If the cause of the disease could not be identified, we consider it to be idiopathic, i.e. congenital. The risk factors and symptoms can be attributed to genetic predisposition, a hereditary disease. At risk people:
- suffering from diabetes mellitus.
Condition conducive to the development of osteoarthritis:
- systematic hypothermia;
- surgery on the meniscus;
- hard work.
In the case when the patient is affected one knee, the disease is referred to as unilateral. Knee osteoarthritis is characterized by bilateral deformed knees of both legs. This can lead the patient to move crutches or even the inability to move independently. In this case, give the disability. It is necessary to distinguish three degrees of gonarthrosis: the first, second and third.
The first degree, it is also initial, is characterized by an almost complete absence of symptoms. The patient has virtually no worries – so where something is shot, stabbed, after a long road pain in my knee. At this stage only a doctor can determine the disease by analysis of synovial fluid and ultrasound. That is why it is important to go to the doctor as soon as something began to worry.
If at the first stage, pain occurs with unit flashes when the load on the foot, when the second degree of gonarthrosis the human condition sharply worsens, the pain may spread to both knees. At this time already not postpone visit to the doctor, who sees a disappointing picture of the tissue destruction of articular cartilage and menisci is an irreversible modification, the formation of bony outgrowths – osteophytes. The symptoms of the 2 degree:
- Appears pronounced limp.
- The patient is difficult to move without one or even two canes.
- There is pain at night.
- Morning stiffness.
In the third degree of gonarthrosis process covers the entire knee joint entirely. Symptoms grade 3:
- Chronic inflammation and pain has not left alone.
- There is a strong deformation of the bone and shifting the axis of the limb – the foot becomes unnaturally curved.
- Shortened ligaments of the joint, change the point of attachment of the tendons.
- In this regard, disrupted the function of the knee muscles, lost the ability to normal to reduce.
- At this stage the patient is no longer able to walk, he can only move around in a wheelchair.
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee
People after diagnosis is appropriate, wondered how to treat osteoarthritis of the knee? Modern medicine knows many ways, from people’s prior to surgery. In any case, the process is long. For successful recovery it is necessary to limit the load to the leg, to do physical therapy, physical therapy. A great help is Spa treatment. In advanced cases, unfortunately, can not do without surgery.
Gonarthrosis 1-2 degrees of the knee joint can be treated without radical intervention. The patient needs to follow all doctor’s instructions. Proper nutrition and pharmacotherapy also play a huge role in the treatment. The main medications that will alleviate the patient’s condition, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs taken by mouth or intra-articular injections.
Therapeutic exercise for gonarthrosis of the knee joint is of great importance. During remission it is important to give a gentle load on the limb, otherwise develops physical inactivity, which leads to atrophy of the muscles and loosens ligaments. The main task of gymnastics – increase joint mobility and muscle endurance. One of the main difficulties of physical therapy is the problem of dosing the load. The sore joint should not be overly hard, but from lack of effort of good will. Recovery has passed more successfully, it is necessary to strictly comply with all instructions of the surgeon.
In 2012, we conducted a large-scale study to determine the effectiveness of different types of exercise. Scientists have determined that to alleviate the condition of the patient exercises in gonarthrosis of the knee must include aerobic exercises or water. They relieve pain and significantly improve the functional status of the affected knee.
Treatment of gonarthrosis folk remedies is possible only as a complement to drug therapy and has the effect solely to the first or early in the second stage of the disease. Know the many different ways of treatment, but to apply them without the advice of a doctor should not, as some have contraindications. For example, effective against inflammation honey wrap:
- The patient’s joint liberally smeared with honey.
- Bandage loosely bandage, also saturated with honey.
- Leave for the night.
- Only such drug is contraindicated in patients with Allergy to honey.
With the help of surgery
When the disease is highly progressed and has reached the third degree, conservative treatment becomes useless. In the foreground there is an invasive intervention, for example, elimination of increased intra-articular pressure. If the joint is destroyed beyond repair it is not possible, then apply the arthroplasty. Further postoperative therapy gives rapid rehabilitation and improving the quality of life of the patient.
Video: how to do the exercises in gonarthrosis
The following video shows some examples of typical exercises for the prevention and treatment of the first stage of gonarthrosis. It’s important to follow the instructions of the instructor, to do the exercises consistently and in good faith, do not forget about medical doctor’s prescription, then the disease will slow down and may come in sustained remission or even complete remission.