Hyperthyroidism is a common clinical syndrome that is diagnosed in women, men, children or newborns. In a broad sense, an overactive thyroid represents an increase of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH in the blood, leading to intoxication of the human body. The effects of this disease become the reason of serious diseases.
What is hyperthyroidism thyroid
At hyperfunction of a thyroid gland in humans, there is an increasing level of thyroxine (T4), decreased gipofize (thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH) and increase in node. The clinical syndrome may be primary, secondary or tertiary. In practice the most common case is the first option. At risk are women of all ages with disorders of thyroid function, people with hereditary predispositions.
The cause of hyperthyroidism is often autoimmune disorders or uncontrolled hormonal drugs. Leading causes of hyperthyroidism – diseases and abnormalities of the health of the thyroid gland. Most patients coming to the endocrinologist, at the time of the complaint already have autoimmune thyroiditis, toxic adenoma of a thyroid gland or a diffuse goiter. The glut of blood thyroid hormone accelerates all processes in the body.
Primary hyperthyroidism has three forms of development:
- subclinical hyperthyroidism (the disease occurs without symptoms, there is a decrease of TSH level);
- overt hyperthyroidism (TSH level decreases, there are the first symptoms of the disease);
- complicated by hyperthyroidism (see all the symptoms of thyroid disease).
To the development of hyperthyroidism cause of adolescent physical changes, regular Psychotrauma or fears, difficult pregnancy, difficult birth, impaired sexual life. Iodine deficiency, poor diet, abuse of unhealthy habits and genetic predisposition are among the main reasons for the emergence and rapid development of hyperthyroidism.
The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in men and women manifested in different forms. In some cases, the disease develops almost imperceptibly for the person. The severity of symptoms depends on the level of deviations in the production of hormones. More common the disease is in women. Among men thyroid disease is rare and occurs in less severe symptoms.
The female hyperthyroidism is manifested by the following symptoms:
- The change of mood and character (the woman becomes irritable, aggressive, her emotional state is constantly changing, disturbed sleep, reduced attention and memory).
- Sharp decline in body weight (the appetite does not change or increases, but body weight decreases).
- Violation of the heart (increased blood pressure, heart rate, arrhythmias).
- The development of eye symptoms (exophthalmia, photophobia, watery, frequent blinking).
- The General position (hand tremor, sweating, rapid changes in body temperature).
- Female abnormalities (problems with the process of conception, the menstrual cycle, absence of menstruation).
In males, the overactive thyroid is manifested in the form of the following changes:
- Abnormalities in the cardiovascular system (shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, blood pressure).
- Muscle weakness (the main cause of the symptom is active the protein breakdown in the body men).
- Reduction of body weight and muscle mass.
- General changes (aggressiveness, tremor of hands, sweating, insomnia).
- External changes (pain in the eyes, exophthalmia, excessive tearing, discomfort from the sun’s rays and light).
Treatment of hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is treated by the method of complex effects on the thyroid gland. Specific methods are chosen by endocrinologist on the basis of surveys and the presence of individual factors. A special role is played by the patient’s age, underlying disease, and the level of manifestations of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
Traditionally thyroid disease is treated in three ways:
- surgical intervention (removal of part or all of the thyroid gland);
- radioiodine therapy (capsules or aqueous solutions of radioactive iodine);
Good results in the treatment of hyperthyroidism show non-pharmacological methods that belong to the category of traditional medicine. Packs of clay, a decoction of chicory are the most common components that is able to normalize the functioning of thyroid. It is recommended to use them in combination with traditional medical methods.
To treat hyperthyroidism it is recommended that the use of decoctions of woodlice, Valerian, calendula, branches and buds of cherry blossoms. Experts say the high efficiency of an alcohol tincture of persimmon. Before using traditional medicine need to consult the endocrinologist and to identify possible intolerance of separate components.
The main goal of medication treatment is to reduce the secretory activity of the thyroid gland and production of hormones. Patients are prescribed a course of antithyroid and thyroid drugs. After radioiodine therapy there is a deficiency of iodine. Its level is compensated by using drugs with a high content of the component. The most common medicines are considered «Merkazolil», «Tyrosol», «Levotiroksin», «Eutirox», «Propell». Drugs block the production of thyroid hormones, destroying most of them.
How to treat hyperthyroidism
The patient with an established diagnosis of an overactive thyroid should change your lifestyle, diet, give up bad habits. Emotional peace is an important part of the treatment process of the disease. Regular examination by an endocrinologist should be carried out even by reducing the symptoms and the appearance of obvious signs of improvement in the condition of the body.
The main methods of treatment of an overactive thyroid in children are considered to be drug therapy and surgical intervention. The second method is used only if the medicines do not lead to the desired result. Radioiodine therapy in children is not used. Adjusted the thyroid gland in a child quickly. Complications arise only as a result of heredity.
An overactive thyroid during pregnancy observed in a small number of women. To develop hyperthyroidism begins at a constant uncontrollable vomiting, the formation of toxic sites or goiter, trophoblastic and Graves ‘ disease. In early pregnancy the hyperthyroidism is treated antitireoidnye drugs. In the second trimester if there are complications used surgery. Such measures are taken only in emergency situations. Operations team includes an obstetrician.
Diet in hyperthyroidism
The negative impact of thyroid hyperfunction on the human psyche is relevant in determining the diet and the special diet. All products can excite the nervous system, become forbidden for consumption. Prime examples are coffee, spices, bitter chocolate, alcohol, strong tea. The basic diet of the patient should be saturated with carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fats. Vegetable and dairy components must be included in complex diets, they become one of its main components.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism consists of three areas. First, the specialist examines the patient’s appearance, comparing it with complaints. On the basis of an initial examination are assigned tests and complete examination. If blood is detected elevated levels of hormones T3, T4, decreased TSH level, the suspected diagnosis of hyperthyroidism becomes.
During examination of the patient are necessarily conducted ultrasound and tomography of the thyroid. The purpose of this research was to reveal the nodules, their size or location. Additionally appointed the ECG to determine the level of abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. Scintigraphy and biopsy of thyroid nodules is necessary to confirm the diagnosis in case of doubt the expert or to determine the stage of the disease.
Video: what is hyperthyroidism
Information hyperthyroidism there are many, but it is not always possible to find sources that fully describes the causes, stages, effects and methods of treatment of this disease. The tutorial describes in detail the essence of an overactive thyroid preventive methods, remedies to get rid of the disease. After watching the movie will not have issues regarding the diagnosis of abnormalities of the thyroid gland and self-identify their main features.