Frequent localization of the disease are exposed skin – face and scalp area of the head. Only in 20% of cases the tumor appears in closed clothing areas (trunk, limbs). Basal cell carcinoma of skin, usually occurs in older people, but in recent years the disease is diagnosed in younger people. Experts explain this growing popularity of travel to tropical countries and the Vogue for tanning.
What is basal cell carcinoma
Basal cell skin cancer is common among Europeans kind of a malignant tumor. Basal cell carcinoma occurs in the cells of the skin layer, which is responsible for the regeneration of the epithelium or at the base of hair follicles. Despite the fact that the disease is considered as malignant type of tumor, it practically never leads to the development of distant metastases. The tumor tend to increase invasive manner, it spreads into the surrounding tissues and destroys them.
Starts as skin cancer? The initial stage of basal cell carcinoma characterized by the appearance on the skin small knot of bodily or reddish tone. This lesion slowly grows, causing the person discomfort and pain. After a certain time in the center of the knot formed crust. If you take it out, the skin will remain deepening, which soon again overgrown with crust. Around the knot it is possible to observe a dense thin cushion consisting of a characteristic of granular formations.
In the future, the basal cell forms new nodules, which may merge with each other. Dilation of superficial capillaries the skin on the body or face leads to the appearance of a large number of «a vascular stars». In the Central part of the tumor is often formed ulcers, which tend to increase. Basal cell carcinoma grows gradually into the surrounding skin, and can cause pronounced pain syndrome.
Exact cause of basal cell carcinoma is not established by modern medicine, so it has code in the «ICD 10» (International classification of diseases) – «neoplasm of unspecified nature». Basal cell skin cancer includes several forms that manifest differently, but the common symptom for all is the inability of an ulcer in the center of the tumor to heal. Experts suggest that skin cancer may be the consequence of:
- working with arsenic;
- burns of the skin;
- visits to the Solarium;
- reduced immunity;
- of albinism;
- private and prolonged stay under the sun.
Distinguish several types of basal cell carcinoma of the skin:
- Nodular. Looks like: it is distinguished by protruding above the skin surface seals, which have an irregular or round shape.
- Solid (krupnozernovaya). Has the appearance of a single large node having the next «spider veins».
- Perforating. The symptom of this form of basal cell carcinoma – rapid growth with ulcers damage to the skin.
- Pigment. Looks like a dark knot around which there are small formations with pearl color.
- Flat. Characterized by multiple pale pink or reddish nodules that grow under the skin inward, not outward.
- Verrucous (papillary). Appears on the face of the knots in the form of hemispheres, resembling cauliflower.
- Scar-atrophic. A symptom of this form of skin cancer of the face is gradually growing ulcer scars.
- Skorodumova. Appears as a faint small knot, which, rising into irregular, flat and dense plaque.
Diagnosis of the disease
Generally, diagnosis of cancer of the skin does not cause serious difficulties for the technician. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor must take a biopsy (histological examination of the taken piece of skin). For the diagnosis of the disease can also be carried out inspection of the patient’s skin using a wood’s lamp. During the procedure, the dermatologist deals on certain parts of the skin a special cream, after which lights a special lamp in a dark room. Often the examination of a patient with suspected tumor using dermatoscopy (examination of the skin using a special device).
How to treat basal cell carcinoma
There are many methods of treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. To determine which therapy will be most effective, may only oncologist. The main goal of therapy of basal cell carcinoma is the removal and prevention of recurrence of the disease. Method of treatment is chosen depending on:
- the location of the tumor;
- the area affected skin;
- state of health;
- the age of the patient.
Different traditional methods can only slow the growth of skin tumors, however, these remedies cannot completely cure the basal cell carcinoma. Alternative medicine in this case may serve only a Supplement to conservative or surgical removal of the tumor. The most effective folk remedies for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma are:
- The celandine. The tumor is smeared fresh juice of the plant (break off a twig from a growing Bush) up to 4 times a day for 10 days. Means perfectly dries the wound.
- Golden mustache. The plant was washed with water and twist through a meat grinder. The slurry was placed in gauze and applied a compress to the basal cell, leaving on the day. Therapy lasts for 15 days.
- Tincture of tobacco. To non-healing sore on the skin has disappeared, use of tobacco infusion. To prepare the tobacco from one cigarette pack pour 200 ml of vodka and insist in the refrigerator for 14 days. After the solution was shaken and strain. Cotton wool wetted with the tincture obtained and applied to the tumor. The treatment course lasts for 10-12 days, after which the scar remaining after the ulcer should be gone.
For the treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the skin often used method of immunotherapy. It involves the use of special ointments – imiquad. The remedy stimulates the patient with interferon, which helps in combating abnormal cells. Usually, the cream treated basal cell carcinoma of the nose, because this method of treatment leaves no scars. Imiquad often used before starting chemotherapy.
Method is used, if the patient’s condition or the location of basal cell carcinoma do not allow for its surgical removal. Radiation therapy is often used to treat tumors on the nose. It is carried out by irradiation with short gamma rays. The results of radiation therapy are aesthetically better than in the surgical removal of basal cell carcinoma. The only disadvantage is the duration of treatment (on average you need to spend 20-25 sessions).
Treatment consists in the introduction under the skin of special substances (photosensitizers) that produce clear boundaries of the tumor, after which irradiated light waves. For basal cell carcinoma of the face photodynamic method is one of the best options of treatment because it causes no cosmetic defects, in contrast to surgical intervention.
The removal of basal cell carcinoma
Treatment of skin cancer should be carried out exclusively by oncologists or dermatooncology. The selection of the objective method of therapy is based on the size, number, location, type of basal cell carcinoma. Another important factor is age and the presence of other diseases in the patient. However, any method of treatment of a tumor face the likelihood of recurrence is approximately 20%. Correctly selected therapeutic method of removal of basal cell carcinoma reduces the risk of recurrent disease. According to statistics, the best results are seen when surgery to remove the tumor.
The method consists in the destruction of cancer cells by laser radiation. Hardware treatment batalion applied since 2012 and is appointed if the patient is contraindicated for surgical or radiation therapy. Tumor removal by laser is considered one of the most effective and progressive ways of dealing with skin cancer. The procedure is absolutely painless, has no contraindications and is easily tolerated even by elderly patients.
Surgery to remove basal cell carcinoma takes place in an outpatient setting using local anesthesia. This treatment is applicable to tumors of small size. Often surgical removal of basal cell carcinoma used for the localization of nodules on the extremities or torso. The tumor was excised within healthy skin, retreating from the borders of a nodule of 6 mm from each side. This is necessary to reduce the risk of relapse.
Rare method of surgical excision of basalioma used for the treatment of tumors located on the face. The main reason – high probability of serious cosmetic defects after surgery. If it was carried out surgical removal of basal cell carcinoma of the face, which led to severe defects in skin tissue, patients seek help from plastic surgeon.
Is to freeze the tumor with liquid nitrogen. Cryosurgery is used to treat batalion in elderly patients. In cryotherapy, the tumor is frozen to -20 degrees. To enhance the effect of the method is additionally used ultrasonic influence on the affected areas of tissue. Cryosurgery of basalom passes as outpatient and inpatient. The procedure does not require anesthesia and has no contraindications.
In the treatment of skin tumors of the face doctors usually give a favorable prognosis. According to statistics, achieve complete cure of cancer 90 patients out of 100, and for local placement of knots – practically all 100. After recovery, some patients experience a relapsing, for which use the method of chemotherapy. In advanced forms of the disease with a characteristic pitting is often observed penetration of the tumor in the bones of the skull, which impairs the predicted effects of treatment. However, even for serious form of skin cancer is not characterized by the formation of metastases.
Video: basal cell skin cancer
Regardless of what basal cell skin cancer is not like regular because it is not spreading metastases to other organs or tissue, be considered as harmless it cannot. Specify, when in the absence of treatment, the tumor gradually increases in size, destroying nearby skin, muscles and bones. If basal cell carcinoma affects the nerves, the patient begins to feel pain. Read more about the disease you can learn by watching the video.
Reviews on the treatment of basal cell carcinoma
Larisa, age 48
We cannot rely on our own strength when treating skin cancer – this will only aggravate the state of your health. Trust an experienced oncologist that will help you cure basal cell carcinoma. My tumor was on the right side of the nose, the oncologist removed it using cryotherapy. Pain during the procedure, felt no cosmetic trace is left.
Tatiana, 25 years
My dad was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. Was treated several years of traditional methods, but there was no point, the tumor continued to grow. In the end, he decided on surgery and now the wound after resection heals. If you notice a growing ulcer is to seek medical attention immediately. The longer they delay the trek to the hospital, the more difficult and expensive the treatment will be.
Dimitri, 36 years
After surgery to remove the tumor six months later and on the same spot began a new tubercle. I bought in a pharmacy infusion celandine and every evening before bedtime put lotion to the knot. After 2 weeks of basal cell carcinoma has left a small pit. Don’t know if a relapse, but popular method helped better than surgery with excision of the tumor.