The resulting harvest depends largely on the quality of seeds and seedlings. Independently to grow tomatoes is no joke and very tedious, but from an economic point of view is very favorable, it requires a lot of knowledge and work. To ensure a good harvest, you will need to know in advance, how to grow tomato plants at home, it is very important to choose and prepare the seeds, the soil, and to sow on time and to provide proper care for the seedlings. But how to do it?
From seed how to grow seedlings of tomato at home
Seedlings grown at home, has high quality and survives well in the open ground, she had minimal exposure to diseases. Selecting quality planting material, farmers can provide themselves with good plants and a rich harvest. How to choose seeds or collect them by yourself in advance? Is it necessary to handle them, if so, how? Such issues are administered in the confusion many novice gardeners.
Preparation of seeds for sowing
Consensus about whether to buy planting material or collect it in the fall don’t. Experienced gardeners often choose self-provisioning of seeds, but you need to understand what fruit is best suited. Planting material from their own plots cost and those who want to save. Anyway, at least the first time you will need to buy them, also it would have to do to whoever decided to grow new varieties in your garden. It is worth noting that self collected seeds suitable for planting up to 7-8 years.
In both cases, in order to grow tomato plants at home planting material is required to prepare in advance. Do it 1-2 days before scheduled planting. How? To begin, select high quality seeds. It will help to make the container of water into which they pour: empty seeds will float and the good will remain at the bottom. The water is drained together with the grains.
After selection of seeds it is necessary to make their disinfection, and for this purpose often use a solution of potassium permanganate. Disinfection is carried out as follows:
- Some grains diluted with water to get a rich purple color.
- To the resulting solution is lowered seeds about 20-25 minutes. If used for planting a few different varieties of tomatoes, it is better to put in the wipes, to prevent mixing.
- When the seeds are decontaminated, they are placed in pure water at room temperature for swelling. Fresh seeds will last 8-10 hours, but if they are older than 3 years, will need more time.
The soil for planting
The correct soil for planting – is an important task for those who want to grow tomatoes at home. Take care of the soil. Some gardeners believe that growing seedlings of suitable land plot with the addition of humus, greenhouse soils and peat. Others believe that it is necessary to prepare a mixture of humus, sod land, peat, urea, superphosphate, potassium sulphate.
Whatever mixture you choose, the land should be decontaminated to not hurt seeds: the earth is amenable to heat treatment. But it’s easier in the fall to make the soil mix and leave, so in winter it is well frozen. If advance failed to prepare the land for planting, cost of the purchase with a mixture of soil for planting seedlings, which are easy to find in a flower shop.
When ready seeds and the mixture of the soil you can start planting. About containers for seedlings need to take care before. For this fit wooden boxes, plastic or peat special glasses and modern containers with lids that are able to create greenhouse effect. Where to grow seedlings up to you to decide, but options for this are many.
Planting begins when the soil is moistened, make holes with a depth of about 0.5-0.7 cm When using boxes you have to respect the distance between the holes of 2-3 cm When the tomatoes are sown in special containers, then in 1 cell need 1-2 grain. After that, cover the seeds slightly with soil. Additional water is not required. If not sow soaked seeds, make the hole deeper – 1.5 cm, and after planting watered them carefully.
How to care for seedlings
Properly selected and prepared seeds, their sowing is not all that will be needed to get good seedlings. Proper care is important point in the whole process. The right actions will help to receive the seedlings and avoid diseases when growing tomatoes at home. First served capacity to achieve the greenhouse effect.
Place home greenhouses best in a well-lit area with a temperature of 20-24 degrees. This temperature was maintained until emergence, then lower it to 18 degrees. During germination the soil, as necessary, moisten with a sprayer, water is obtained at room temperature. We should not forget about the condensation that appears on the tape, it is required to clean regularly. After emergence, film, or other covering removed. Watering seedlings as they dry, otherwise there is a risk of formation of rottenness.
What to feed seedlings
When you receive the first pair of full leaves, the plants begin to feed – this stimulates growth and strengthens the tomatoes. But it is important not to overdo it, otherwise you will get good greens, but no fruit at all it dies. To determine the need for feeding in the early stages will help seedling color dark green leaves and thick stems with purple tint say that to fertilize seedlings is not worth it.
Experienced gardeners are advised to opt for fertilizing with organic fertilizers, and which will prompt the plants themselves:
- When turn yellow and fall off the lower leaves of tomatoes, this suggests that they lack nitrogen, but be careful – if all the leaves turn yellow, it indicates a surplus.
- If the seedlings turned purple, this indicates a lack of phosphorus.
- Plants that are in a constantly lit environment, you need the iron and the observance of a day-night balance.
How to swoop tomatoes
When the seedling appears 3 full sheet, it can be thinned out. But in this process the gardeners are ambiguous: some believe that swordplay is the extra stress on the plants, others say it’s a way to weed out the bad sprouts. But whatever opinion you neither adhered to, swoop down tomatoes is compulsory if:
- seeds sown in a box and there are more shoots than planned in advance;
- want to get tomatoes with healthy roots;
- appeared unhealthy plants;
- it is necessary to slow the growth of seedlings, so it does not become.
Pick doing about 10 day after germination, the process should be prepared. 2 days prior to the scheduled pick tomatoes watered. If you water before the soil dries, and if immediately prior to pick – the earth will be heavy, which will hinder the process. To get the plants recommended using a teaspoon — it will protect the transplant. In a suitable container for polerowanej seedlings placed the plant, immersing it up to the cotyledon leaves, then the earth is compacted and watered.
When to plant seedlings in open ground
In time the planted seedlings is a guarantee that it will survive better in the open ground and give a good harvest. Early planted tomatoes are at risk for sudden frost and late planting affects the crop. The ideal time to move the tomatoes in the open ground depends on the climate of the region. Basically it falls on the time from mid-may to early June. To protect tomatoes from frost, for the night it is served. Then follow timely irrigation, hoeing and tying of plants.
Common problems when growing seedlings and their decision
During the first growing gardeners often face problems when the seedlings become weak, stretched, turned, or Vice versa stopped growing, the leaves of the tomato changed and they started to show spots. Thin, pale tomatoes say that they are sick, but do not worry and send these plants in the trash – many of them still manage to save and get a wonderful harvest. Compliance with the recommendations is able to save the tomatoes and turn the growing process into an exciting experience.
The seedling has grown a lot
Worth a little distracted from the seedling as it begins to stretch. Very often this is due to inadequate lighting or unmade in time film. But what to do if a tomato seedling has grown a lot? To solve you need to take care of a good light source, correct the situation and the pick of plants. Some suggest that you transfer them in the cold, but this is not recommended. In some cases, if the seedlings grew taller, using growth regulators (EPIN, Zircon, etc.).
The seedlings stopped growing
Stopping or slowing the growth of tomatoes is a common problem. For its solution we first need to define the reason of such behavior of the plant. The most common reasons that tomatoes grow slowly become:
- The wrong soil is too acidic or alkaline.
- The lack or overabundance of food.
- Incorrect watering – the soil is flooded or too dry.
- Seedlings hurts.
- The presence in the house cat (if she went to the toilet for seedlings, it turns blue and dies).
- Wrong picks.
Solve the problem by removing the cause stopping the growth, create optimal conditions for tomato: lighting, temperature, timely watering and fertilizing. If the seedlings are not growing, are growth stimulants. The most common is a solution of the sodium HUMATE. The color of the liquid should resemble strong tea or beer. Pour 1 Cup of solution per 1 plant of tomato. It is sprinkled with yeast.
The leaves have changed color and there were spots
If the leaves wither, curl are stained, this indicates that the fertilizer plant has too much or in a mixture of soil was the sea sand, which poisons the roots or the seedlings failed to ensure normal watering, the soil dried up. Remedy the situation by flushing the soil with large amounts of water, only water needs to drain freely. If the soil is still used sea sand, will save only the transplantation to another soil by washing the roots.
What to do if the seedlings grew
The optimal solution to this problem is to pick plants that will allow for some slow growth up to the moment when the tomato seedlings should be planted in the ground. If climatic conditions allow, the plants are planted directly into open ground and provide it with further care. In any case, the seedlings should not be cut or removed in a cold unhallowed place – these actions will only hurt.
Video: how to grow healthy seedlings of tomato in the apartment
Seedlings are grown not only in the hotbed or greenhouse. Life in the apartment is not a reason to abandon the idea of self-germinating seeds and care of seedlings before planting in open ground. Spring is the time when you want to work. Even living in an apartment, grow tomatoes yourself is possible, and thanks to the recommendations of the following video, you will learn how and what to do correctly to ensure proper conditions. Home grown seedlings will help to save money on the purchase, give the joy at harvest, these tomatoes from the beginning to the end of your creation.