Complications of diabetes

Diabetes is a dangerous chronic disease, which seriously impedes human activity. This disease compels the patient to follow a diet and to undergo regular treatment to prevent exacerbations. To cure this disease is impossible, however, when doctors ‘ recommendations are able to achieve full compensation and at 80-90% to get rid of the symptoms. Nevertheless, complications of diabetes occur more often than we would like. Each case has a number of idiosyncrasies. To learn more about this, read on.

Causes of complications in diabetes type 1 and 2

Whatever the deterioration of the human condition, a diabetic patient, he has a reason. For several decades, scientists talking about the factors that cause complications, however, fully define the nature of these phenomena, however, has not succeeded. However, there are a number of circumstances conducive to the appearance of undesirable physiological changes. The most common ones are listed below:

  • improper diet, causing metabolic disorders;
  • excess glucose and/or sodium;
  • increasing the concentration of sugar in the blood;
  • the accumulation of lactic acid in the body.

Types of complications

Diabetes, as a separate endocrine disease, is not fraught with threats to human health. This illness is dangerous because it causes a lot of serious complications, which almost never go unnoticed. Thanks to high-tech research medicine got a lot of useful information about each of the possible variants of deterioration.

Acute

Diabetic complications that are related to the category of acute, pose a serious threat to life. These include processes that develop very quickly and cause the deterioration of the patient until critical. In the best case, the onset of an exacerbation takes a few days. A much more common complication, developing in a matter of hours. And, in the absence of a medical emergency will inevitably lead to death. The table below contains General information about each of the possible acute complications of diabetes:

Name complications

Reasons

Symptoms/manifestations/consequences

Risk groups

Ketoacidosis

Sharp increase in the concentration of metabolic products in the blood. Special hazards are ketone bodies. Such phenomena observed after surgical operations, obtain serious injuries and at the wrong diet.

Loss of consciousness, sudden disturbances of functions of vital organs.

People diagnosed with diabetes of the 1st type. Ketoacidosis in diabetes type 2 diabetes recorded very rarely.

Hypoglycemia

Extreme reduction of sugar content. It can be caused by an overdose of potent pharmaceutical drugs, excessive use of alcohol, intense exercise.

The abrupt change in blood sugar, loss of consciousness, no reaction of eye pupils to light, sweating, convulsions. Extreme form of this complication is an insulin coma. The likelihood of this problem is directly related to the factor of heredity.

All diabetics.

Hyperosmolar coma

The increase in the concentration of glucose and sodium in the blood. In all cases this factor occurs against a background of prolonged dehydration.

Unquenchable thirst (polydipsia), increased urination (polyuria).

Elderly diabetics.

Lactoridaceae coma

Increased levels of lactic acid. Is observed in people suffering from renal, cardiovascular and hepatic insufficiency.

Dizziness, sudden drop in blood pressure, disorders of the respiratory system, the complete lack of urination.

Older people with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 1/2.

Chronic (late)

For late complications of diabetes mellitus characterized by a gradual development over several months or even years. They are not threatening exacerbations, but slowly degrade your overall health. Even in the presence of a well-planned systematic treatment with medication reliable protection from complications of diabetes this type is guaranteed not always. Learn more about each of them you will learn by reading the table below.

Name complications

Reasons

Signs/symptoms/effects

Risk groups

Retinopathy

The leakage of protein and blood in the retina caused by the deterioration of control of blood pressure and glucose concentrations.

Deterioration of visual acuity up to blindness. Education microaneurysm. The development of cataracts and/or glaucoma.

People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1/2, established over 10 years ago.

Nephropathy

The destruction of small blood vessels leads to leakage of proteins via the urine.

Infringement of functions of kidneys. Over the years, develop chronic failure. The kidneys lose the ability of the purification and filtration of blood, therefore, toxic substances begin to accumulate.

People with diabetes, diagnosed over 10 years ago.

Encephalopathy

Metabolic problems in diabetes mellitus. High predisposition to this complication occurs in older people.

A malfunction in the Central nervous system that occurs as a result of damage to blood vessels of the brain. Encephalopathy causes severe headaches, depression, migraine, disorders of mental activity.

People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1.

Polyneuropathy

Damage of the peripheral nerve endings caused by inadequate saturation with oxygen and other necessary components.

A gradual decrease in the sensitivity of the extremities to heat and pain. In most cases, this complication develops on the principle of «glove and stocking» – at the same time begins on the fingers and toes. There was a burning sensation and often numbness in the limbs. Neuropathy often leads to greater injuries.

People diagnosed with diabetes second/third stage over 50 years.

Skin lesions

Skin as the largest organ, is experiencing a shortage of nutrients occurs as a result of metabolic disorders. The main factor contributing to the development of skin diseases is improper carbohydrate metabolism.

Dermatosis, ulcers, scaly patches (with the appearance of such spots on the head begins hair loss). The disease destroys the inner layers of the skin, causing the surface becomes rough and dry.

All diabetics.

Microangiopathy

The changes in the blood composition, which entails the violation of hemostasis, and damage to the walls of small blood vessels.

Microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus develops in 90% of cases. In this case, patients it is observed a slight swelling of extremities (usually short duration). In severe cases the fault of this complication the limb completely lose functionality, which required an urgent amputation.

People with diabetes, diagnosed over 10 years ago.

Diabetic foot

This syndrome occurs due to the development of trophic ulcers on the skin of the feet.

Swelling, redness, coldness, tingling, cramps. On the skin of the feet appear ulcerative wound (as shown in photo). The pain they cause, because most of the nerve endings in this place, have already died. The fault of this complication, the leg can swell so much that would require immediate hospitalization in the nearest medical institution.

All adult diabetics.

What complications and consequences of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

Complications in children are manifested to a lesser extent due to small «experience». The mortality rate under the age of 18 years is close to zero. However, if the child was diagnosed with diabetes – this means that the process of decompensation has already started. Doctors say a number of complications specific to diabetes in children/adolescence:

  • microalbuminuria;
  • diabetic nephropathy;
  • disorder (in rare cases);
  • retinopathy.

Complications of diabetes in early age is dangerous its secrecy. The symptoms observed in the child, often written off to other, more typical and common diseases. Provided timely access to qualified medical service possible in a short time to achieve complete compensation of diabetes and to ensure complete freedom from disturbance.

Video about the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications