Medicine constantly offers to the public new methods of diagnosis of serious pathology. The successful treatment of various diseases depends on timely detection, assigning the appropriate therapy. Duplex scanning of vessels of the head and neck – an innovative way to study that allows you to see in a two-dimensional projection of the smallest hollow tubular formation of the human body. Non-invasive nature of the technique facilitates the procedure does not require recovery after manipulation.
What is duplex scanning of vessels
How to check the head non-invasive way? The unique properties of ultrasound to help him to pass through the tissues of the human body and reflecting from blood cells, to send a signal in the form of an image of inspecting area on the monitor screen of the diagnostician. By means of duplex scanning of vessels of the head and neck specialist can assess the hemodynamic parameters of blood, to obtain information about the anatomical peculiarities of the veins and arteries. Different Doppler technologies equally using the properties of sound waves, but have different functionality:
- Doppler ultrasound (Doppler ultrasound). This study helps to evaluate the patency of vessels of the brain, neck, and other organs. Doppler ultrasound carries only one functional load – definition of hemodynamics.
- Duplex ultrasound scan. Through this method it is possible to diagnose the presence of the arteries and veins of atherosclerotic plaques, thrombi, contributing to the narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels. During the monitoring of the rendered tubular formation with the surrounding tissues. Duplex scanning is divided into the following subtypes:
- extracranial – explores the great vessels;
- intracranial – intracerebral checks «pools»;
- transcranial – provides color duplex scanning of brain.
- Triplex scanning. Dopplerography of vessels of head and neck, which in addition to the information about the intensity of blood flow, diagnostician receives a color image of tubular formation with the surrounding tissues.
- Ultrasound. Shows the «big picture» of the structure of arteries and veins. An ultrasound Doppler helps to find out the characteristics of the traffic flow, to conduct a survey to determine the presence of pathologies.
Indications for research
Research vessels planned nature should be held mandatorily once a year. Detection of abnormalities at an early stage helps to avoid the negative consequences associated with progressive form of the disease, and to take measures for appointment of adequate treatment. Duplex scanning of the patency of vessels of the head and neck is often prescribed for the verification of the results obtained during the implementation of MRI, Doppler ultrasound of vessels of head and neck. Indications for the duplex are the following symptoms:
- numbness of the hands;
- poor coordination;
- memory loss;
- a history of stroke;
- cervical osteochondrosis;
- arterial hypertension;
- previously identified vascular dystonia;
- family ties with hypertensive or diabetic;
- vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels).
How to prepare
Examination of the head and neck does not require special patient preparation. On the day of the procedure, it is necessary to abandon the use of tools that increase the tone of blood vessels: coffee, nicotine, tea, energy. Cancel drugs that can distort the results of Doppler ultrasound – «Betaserc», «Tennaserim» – requires consultation with a neurologist. Before scanning, the patient will need to be removed from the study area all foreign objects in the form of chains, pins, etc.
How is the procedure
Duplex scanning can go in the direction of the attending physician in the neurological departments of large urban hospitals or to go to the clinic according to the area of residence. Holding manipulation is performed according to the rule. The patient is placed on the couch, under the head put a firm pillow or cushion, placing his head in the direction opposite to the sensor.
Before the procedure the doctor puts on a little investigated area of special gel with which you can easily «drive» the transducer on the skin surface, analyzing the arterial and venous bed. The cerebral vessels are checked through the bones of the skull. Pre-processed skin water-soluble gel, then the doctor places the sensors on the following areas:
- above the eye sockets;
- combining the occipital bone with the spine;
- of the occipital bone.
Interpreting the results
After examination, the doctor receives information about the state of the arteries and veins. Analysis of the venous system contains almost no digital data, but includes the options:
- the speed of blood;
- the presence of abnormal formations inside the lumen.
Dopplerography of blood vessels collects digital data that are compared with normal values. Fair condition overall and carotid arteries can be considered the following indicators:
- top speed of blood flow in the artery is less than 0.9;
- the percentage of stenosis – 0;
- peak velocity in diastole is less than 0.5;
- the lack of formations inside the lumen;
- wall thickness – 0.9 to 1.1.
Are there any contraindications
The advantage of duplex scanning is the absence of adverse effects on the human body. The non-invasive nature of the study helps to make a diagnosis of the vessels in adult and child without any restrictions. Relative contraindications can be considered as a serious condition of the patient or the presence of diseases that prevent the transition of the patient in the horizontal position.
Video: what does an ultrasound of vessels of head and neck