What distinguishes writing from oral?

Originally there was only oral, that is sounding, speech. Then set up special signs, and written language. However, the difference between these ways of communicating is not only used, but also in many other ways. We consider in more detail what distinguishes writing from oral.

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Definition

Writing is a graphic system used to secure and transmit information, one of the ways the existence of a language. Written speech is presented, for example, in books, personal and business letters, official documents.

Spoken language – form of language, expressed in spoken and perceived words. Communication with the use of oral speech can occur by direct contact (a friendly conversation, the teacher’s explanations in the classroom) or indirectly (phone conversation).

to contents ↑the Difference between written and spoken language
to contents ↑If

Written language is characterized as contextual. It has all the necessary information is in the text. Such speech is often addressed to an unknown reader, and in this case do not have to rely on the addition of content items, which are usually understandable without words through direct contact. Therefore, written language appears in a more expanded form. Most fully reveals all the essential points, describes the nuances.

Spoken language often involves an Association of interlocutors on the specific situation, understandable to both of them. In this situation, many details remain untold. After all, if you say out loud that the already obviously, it will get boring, even tedious, unnecessarily lengthy, pedantic. In other words, speaking is situational in nature, and therefore it is less deployed than in writing. Often in that kind of communication to understand each other is enough only hint.

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The difference between written speech from oral is that the writer has no opportunity to affect the recipient’s funds that are in the Arsenal of the speaker. The expressiveness of written texts is provided by the formulation of the punctuation marks, change the font, use paragraphs and other things.

Verbally, a lot can show intonation, gaze, facial expressions, various gestures. For example, say «goodbye» is able in one case to mean «goodbye, I’ll wait» and the other «it’s over between us». In conversation even a pause can be meaningful. And sometimes that speech is shocking listeners, and the same words, just written on paper, do not produce absolutely no impression.

to content ↑Features of construction

Thoughts on the letter should be written in a very understandable way. After all, if the conversation the student will have the opportunity to ask again, and speaking – to explain and to clarify something, such direct regulation of written speech is not feasible.

Writing demands spelling and syntax. It also features stylistic component. For example, in the speech to the listener, allowed the use of incomplete sentences, because else the situation dictates, and unfinished construction on the letter in many cases is an error.

to contents ↑the Possibility of deliberation

All responsibility for the contents of the written text rests with the author. But he has more time to think-phrases, correction, addition. This largely applies to such varieties of oral speech, as the report and the lecture, which is also prepared in advance.

Meanwhile, speaking is carried out at a certain point communication and is aimed at a specific audience. These conditions sometimes cause difficulty in talking. Inability to Express thoughts, not knowing what further to say, the desire to correct the already spoken, as well as a desire to Express it all at once leads to a noticeable error. It’s the intermittent nature of speech or, on the contrary, the indivisibility of phrases, unnecessary repetition of words, wrong stress. As a result, the content of the speech can remain unintelligible.

to content ↑Duration of existence

Consider the difference between written and spoken language on the duration of each of them. Refer to your written speech. Its important feature is that the text after writing for a long time will exist regardless of the presence of the author. Even if the writer is no longer alive, important information will reach the reader.

Exactly what over time has no effect on a letter gives humanity the ability to pass from generation to generation the accumulated knowledge and to keep the story in the Chronicles. Meanwhile, speaking lives only in the moment of sounding. The author’s presence is mandatory. With the exception of the statements recorded on the media.

Type of question: written
Type of speech: oral

Fixed graphically
Transmitted voice

Context
Situational

Detailed
Less deployed

Use punctuation, splitting text, changing font etc
Supplemented by gestures, appropriate facial expressions, intonation game

Must comply with orthography, syntax, stylistics
There are no rules, characteristic for written speech

More thought out
Spontaneous, except for reports, lectures

When reading the author’s presence is not required
The presence of the author

There is a long time after writing
Live in the moment of sounding

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