We rarely think about diabetes. However, the danger of this disease should not be ignored. A prerequisite to the occurrence of disease – low levels of insulin in the blood. Produced by the endocrine pancreatic islets, it is an integral part of metabolism. Low levels of the hormone insulin affects the work of many internal organs. Modern medicine has no absolute knowledge about that, from what appears diabetes, but how the disease and that serves as a trigger, is studied in detail. More about this read further in the article.
Types of diabetes and their causes
Glucose is the energy source, the fuel for the body. Insulin helps to digest, but if you have diabetes, the hormone may not be produced in the right quantity, not made at all or the cells may not respond to it. This leads to an increase in the level of glucose in the blood, decomposition of fats, dehydration. The lack of immediate measures to reduce the level of sugar can lead to dire consequences, such as renal failure, amputation, stroke, blindness, coma. So, let’s consider the reasons of developing diabetes:
- The destruction of viral infections of cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Dangerous are measles, mumps, chickenpox, viral hepatitis. Rubella causes diabetes in one in five who recover from it that can be complicated in the presence of a genetic predisposition. The greatest danger it poses to children and minors.
- Genetic moments. If someone in the family has diabetes, the probability of presence of the disease in other members increases many times. If both parents are diabetic, the child will have the disease with an absolute guarantee, if the diabetes has one parent – the odds are one in two, but if the disease is manifested in a brother or sister, then another baby, it will develop in a quarter of cases.
- Autoimmune problems such as hepatitis, thyroiditis, lupus, in which the immune system recognises the cells of the body hostile, may lead to the death of «pancreatic» cells, hindering the production of insulin.
- Obesity. The likelihood of diabetes increases many times. So, people that do not have excess weight, your chance of having the disease is 7.8%, but if the weight exceeds the normal twenty percent, the risk increases to 25%, while excess weight in 50 percent of diabetes occurs in two-thirds of all people. When it comes to type II diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus type I (insulin-dependent) leads to the death of insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Because of this, she begins to produce much less of the hormone or stops producing it. The disease is manifested to thirty years, and its main cause is viral infection leading to autoimmune issues. The blood of the people, insulin-dependent diabetes patients, has antibodies against insulin-producing cells. They need regular intakes of insulin from the outside.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes is characterized by the fact that the pancreas can produce the hormone, even more than required, but the body is not able to perceive it. As a result, the cell can not miss in the necessary glucose. The cause of type II are genetic conditions and excess weight. It happens that the disease occurs in response to treatment with corticosteroids.
Scientists find it difficult to reliably name the reasons, what appears dangerous diabetes. There are a set of conditions influencing the occurrence of disease. View all this allows you to predict how it will proceed and to progress diabetes, and often avoid or put off his manifestation. Each type of diabetes has its own conditions that increase the risk of disease:
- Genetic predisposition. The risk factor for the occurrence of the first type. From the parents, the child acquires a predisposition to the occurrence of the disease. But a trigger is an external influence: the effects of surgery, infection. The latter can cause in the body the production of antibodies that will destroy the insulin-secreting cells. But even the presence of diabetics in the family does not mean you will get sick this disease.
- Medication. Some medications have a tendency to provoke diabetes. To those belong: glucocorticoid hormones, diuretics, hypotensive drugs, drugs for fighting tumors. Diabetes can occur as a result of continued use of food additives containing selenium, funds against asthma, rheumatism and dermatological problems.
- Wrong way of life. Active lifestyle three times reduces the risk of diabetes. Those who do not have physical activity, the consumption of glucose by the tissues is significantly reduced. By itself, sedentary lifestyle leading to extra pounds, and addiction to harmful foods that provide you enough protein and fiber, but more than you need – sugar, is an additional risk factor.
- Diseases of the pancreas. Lead to the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and the development of diabetes.
- Infection. Especially dangerous is mumps, Coxsackie virus B, and rubella. Thus there is a direct relationship between the latter and a diabetes of the first type. Vaccination against these diseases, and any other vaccinations cannot cause the disease.
- Nervous stress. Officially recognized as one of the most common causes of type II diabetes, which affects 83% of all having the disease.
- Obesity. Is one of the common causes for development of type II diabetes. When the body gets too much fat, he fits the liver and pancreas, the susceptibility of cells to insulin decreases.
- Pregnancy. The state of carrying a child is a significant stress for women and can cause gestational diabetes. Produced by the placenta hormones increase the blood sugar level, pancreas is forced to work with a lot of stress, and create all the necessary insulin is not possible. After giving birth gestational diabetes disappears.
The first signs and symptoms
There are cases when diabetes mellitus manifested so weakly that may be invisible. Sometimes the symptoms are obvious, but people don’t pay attention to them. And only blurred vision or troubles with the cardiovascular system lead him to turn to the experts. Early detection of the disease will help to stop the destructive processes that occur through its fault in the body, and not to become chronic. So, here are the symptoms that indicate the presence of disease:
- Increased appetite.
- A feeling of dryness in the mouth.
- An unusually strong thirst.
- Frequent urination.
- High levels of sugar in the urine.
- The level of glucose in the blood exceeds the limit.
- Fatigue, weakness, General malaise.
- A sharp increase or decrease of weight without any obvious reason.
- «Iron» taste in the mouth.
- Blurred vision, sensation of fog before eyes.
- Deterioration of wound healing, ulcers on the skin.
- Skin irritation in the perineum, constant skin problems.
- Frequent vaginal and fungal infections.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Numbness in extremities and convulsions.
- Rough, dehydrated skin.
Symptoms in men:
- Recurring over short periods of time urination along with increased thirst can be a sign that kidneys require more water to get rid of the increased fluid volume.
- Weight loss without dieting and greater than before, fatigue can be signs of diabetes first type.
- Tingling in hands and feet, limb numbness can be a symptom resulting from high blood sugar nephropathy and symptom of type II diabetes.
- In men, the disease disrupts the function of the reproductive organs and urogenital system.
Symptoms in women:
- The feeling of weakness and dullness that occurs after eating, fatigue, deterioration in performance, dry mouth, increased urination, constant thirst, hypertension.
- Weight, provided that the fat concentrated in the waist area.
- Recurring headaches.
- Increased appetite, feeling of hunger and the desire to consume sweet.
- Vaginal infection.
- Sores on the skin, often suppurating.
- Skin irritation is concentrated in the crotch. We should not forget that this itching can even cause thrush, skin and venereal diseases, Allergy.
In children and adolescents
Symptoms in children:
- Strong thirst.
- Weight reduction with a very good appetite.
- Polyuria, often taking it for bedwetting.
- The release of a large amount of light urine. A blood test for diabetes shows high levels of acetone and sugar.
- Dry skin and insufficient humidity of the mucous membranes, crimson tongue, and a loss of skin elasticity.
Prevention of the disease
Direct the prevention of diabetes is not invented, but you can make an effort to reduce the probability of its occurrence. With hereditary risk factors nothing can be done, but to fight against obesity. This will help exercise and no junk food on the menu. Additional favorable measures will be attention to blood pressure and no stress.
Video: why do I get sugar diabetes
In the videos below you will learn from what appears dangerous diabetes. Doctors identified six causes of illness and delivered to the public. Clearly, substantial, as in the directory, the information conveyed to the adult viewer. The causes of diabetes are forced to think about the actions of the foolish, and wrong lifestyle which leads to obesity and other consequences.