Cervical Cytology: what is it and how to decrypt liquid analysis

This study aims to determine the presence of pathologies that can occur in the female body. The analysis allows us to establish the nature of the disease, to identify inflammatory processes, cancer, or a precancerous condition, a benign tumor. Cervical Cytology is mandatory examination for women after 21 years, which is carried out prophylactically. The test can be stopped after age 65 if previous tests showed a negative result.

What is Cytology in gynecology

PCR smear (abnormal cells) microscopic laboratory study that provides an opportunity to study the flora of the genital organs, detecting the presence of viruses, infections, detecting cancer or HPV. Analysis on cancer cells should be done regularly, because cervical cancer is one of the most aggressive diseases of the female reproductive system.

This type of cancer is practically not manifested in the early stages of development and when symptoms begin to manifest – often too late. Developed tumor, usually inoperable and difficult effects of chemo — or radiotherapy. So, late diagnosis can no longer guarantee the effective treatment of cancer and leads to death.

It is extremely important to detect cancer at an early stage that the doctors were able to save not only the life of the patient, but also not to remove her reproductive organs. So every women, visiting the gynecologist, should, in addition to the regular colposcopy to take a swab from the cervical canal. This will guarantee timely, and therefore successful treatment of dangerous diseases.

That shows oncocytological smear

Gynecological smear is subjected to microscopy (science visual study of small objects). According to the results the physician determines the condition of the microflora in women: qualitative and quantitative indicators of erythrocytes, leukocytes, modification of flat and cylindrical cells taken from the cervix. If all objects studied in normal Cytology is defined as negative. In another case, when the abnormality in the dimensions or shapes of some cells, the doctor will diagnose dysplasia (malignant tumor or a precancerous condition).

If histology showed columnar (glandular) epithelium of flat or taken in the cervix, had been tampered with, the doctor prescribes repeated Cytology. In this case, the woman needs to having a PAP test again after 2-3 months. When atypia re-fence the secretions of the cervix performed immediately to exclude a false-positive result for cancer. In addition, the doctor prescribes the woman other diagnostic studies to form the most accurate and informative picture.

As you take a scraping of the vagina in women

The cervical Cytology take during gynecological examination special stick or brush with the inner and outer surfaces of the body. Moreover, a swab can pick up from the vulva or vagina, if for good reason. Compared with biopsy, Cytology is painless for women. The procedure takes no longer than 10 seconds. Because in the process of smear collection, the doctor makes a scraping, some of the patient can observe slight bleeding on the first day after analysis.

Transcript of cytological examination of smears taken from uterine cervix

In pregnancy in women significantly decreases the number of lactobacilli, therefore, decreases the efficiency of the immune system. To prevent the development of pathologies that stimulate sexual infections, Cytology pregnant patient are mandating. Women who are not bearing the fruit less susceptible to developing diseases of the genital organs, including the cervix. Below is a table of interpretation of the results of Cytology.


They inflammation



Most bacteria – Bacillus of Doderlein, white little, pH 4.0 to 4.5 (acidic environment).

Cytology normal.


Lactobacilli are present in addition to pathogens, pH 4.5-5.0 (acidic).

The presence of inflammation in the cervix, viruses, fungi, or HPV.


Revealed several lactobacilli, pH 5.0-7.0 (slightly acidic environment, alkaline, poor).

Dysplasia. It is recommended to repeat Cytology and biopsy.


No lactobacilli, pH 7.0 to 7.5 (alkaline). Micro-flora full of pathogenic bacteria, found a large number of leukocytes.

High probability of cervical cancer. Possible inflammation of the body.

Video about liquid-based Cytology method

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