Ligament damage is one of the most common types of injuries. Stop takes up most of the load during walking, running, sports. She is involved in any movement. A sprain of the foot may be combined with other injuries, such as ruptures of muscles and tendons, fractures or dislocations. This problem arises in case of exceeding the amplitude of movement. Learn more about tensile strength of the review.
What is the sprain of ankle joint
Many people prefer to seek help from professionals only in extreme cases when they find serious injuries. However, a sprain of the lower extremities complicates a man’s life, depriving him of the ability to walk normally. This problem is very dangerous because sometimes it causes damage to the fibers or complete separation of ligament from bone.
The violation occurs in the area between the talus and fibular, or calcaneal bones. Up to 12% of all injuries of the ankle account for a sprain. Their appearance may be due:
- with the wearing of shoes with high heels;
- walking on slippery roads;
- the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the foot (high arch foot);
- existing diseases of the calf muscles.
There are several mechanisms of sprain:
- During usual physical exertion suddenly tucks the foot (inward or outward). This may occur when training on uneven terrain or due to a sudden blow on the leg.
- The rotation of the foot around the longitudinal axis of the tibia, the foot is immobile and the lower leg moves forward (for example, downhill on a snowboard or skis).
Faced with this problem, some don’t know how to determine in humans the presence of a sprain of the foot. However, the symptoms of this injury are, as a rule, is well expressed: the patient can easily determine the problem. There is swelling, severe pain, hematoma, inability to move limb. Over time, the situation is getting worse. The main symptoms of sprain of the foot:
- In the first hours after injury in humans, there are unpleasant sensations, which are growing even while the legs are at rest. After a few hours (usually the morning) the pain will reach the peak.
- The first three days marked the tumor, which is constantly increasing.
- To move the limb becomes harder, so the movements of the patient are becoming more limited.
- During palpation can detect a small hole that indicates the rupture of the tissue.
- Sometimes during the damage can hear a click, after which the patient cannot move his leg. This happens when multiple injuries. For example, there is a dislocation of the ankle joint or fracture together with stretching.
Specific signs of injury determines the anatomy and the extent of the damage. If you or a loved one has a sprained foot in the first degree, you must have the following symptoms:
- Moderate pain that worsen when walking or palpation of the injury site.
- In the area of attachment of the ligament becomes swollen, and sometimes bleeding.
- If as a result of injury the damage is limited to the individual fibers, then the victim can move and even walk.
The average degree
In second-degree sprains are the following features:
- sharp pain when palpating the injury site or the movement of a patient;
- greatly swells the outer and front part of the foot of a person;
- due to the severe pain the patient has difficult walking.
Severe sprain of the ankle
More severe sprains stop accompanied by the following problems:
- you cannot stand on an injured leg (severe pain);
- swells the entire foot of a person;
- there is bruising;
- the patient is forced to restrict the movement of the entire ankle joint;
- go to the victim.
For occurrence of this injury, there are lots of options, among them – uncomfortable shoes and anatomical features of the human body. Athletes can be exposed to this due to the high loads while performing the required exercises in the gym. Often stretching of the ankle is damage to the outer ligaments of the feet at the bottom. Only this part of the body consists of three bones: the talus and the tibia (small, large).
The ankle plays an important role (responsible for movement, takes most of the load). It is provided through connective tissues that controls the load on the limb. The deformation of this body part occurs at the time of exceeding the permissible level of load. This may be many reasons, the main everyone should know. What could be the cause of the injury:
- high human activity;
- uncomfortable shoes with platform or high heels;
- transportation of heavy loads by hand;
- the fall of man;
- a sharp turn of foot when walking, running, jumping on uneven surfaces.
It should be noted that some people have a predisposition to sprain. The reasons may be the following:
- Frequent injuries, torn ligaments or muscles.
- The underdevelopment of the athlete’s ankle ligaments – they often take heavy loads.
- The high arch of the foot. This phenomenon can be congenital and acquired (for example, if the child began early to train).
- Flat feet.
- Different length of the lower limbs of a person.
- Congenital absence of the strength of the connective tissues of the body.
- Inflammation, arthritic changes in the joints.
- Nerve and muscle diseases (myasthenia gravis).
First aid for sprains
The effect of further treatment depends on how correctly and in a timely manner to the victim is given help. This helps to relieve severe pain, accelerate recovery of damaged tissues. The measures will simplify future therapy, to avoid serious consequences. Know the basic algorithm of actions useful to all, because from traumas nobody is insured. What to do when stretching legs, how to help the victim:
- To ensure the rest of the damaged leg, seated (or laying).
- To impose compressive bandage, using any piece of cloth or an elastic bandage. If the damage is severe, you need a splint, which is placed on both sides of the joint. For this purpose, suitable Board or ruler.
- In order to relieve severe pain, you need to apply ice, use a special gel or a wet towel (kept cool compress).
- To prevent edema and bleeding, feet are placed in the raised position.
If you have reason to suspect a sprain, subluxation of the foot or other injuries, you need to immediately contact the experts. Trauma surgeon can visually estimate the severity of the problem, the condition of the bones and ligaments, the ability of the victim to move independently. After that, the patient is prescribed x-ray (if patient is not just sprained and tore a ligament, or in the presence of fractures). In difficult diagnostic situations, before starting to treat a person, he can prescribe an MRI.
After discovering the victim of a particular injury is determined by the further therapy. Homemade ways to treatment is only possible when the damage to the ligaments of the foot 1 and 2 degrees. More severe injuries can heal only specialists in the hospital. Sometimes required:
- a long therapeutic course of;
- hardware recovery methods;
Severe pain when affected by sprains, it is recommended to accept the non-steroidal pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs. In each kit there is «Ibuprofen,» «Aspirin», «Diclofenac». If the patient has a fever (the consequence of inflammatory processes in the body), you can take a «Paracetamol». The damaged part of the body usually aches even at rest. A quick way to relieve discomfort is to use an ointment for sprains («Menthol», «Viprosal», «Capoterra»).
Physical therapy and massage
Once past the period of acute pain, patients with injuries of any severity assigned to UHF, physiotherapy, restorative massage. Exercises should be repeated up to 20 times a day to speed recovery. Therapeutic massage helps to restore metabolic processes in tissues. In addition, it is useful to visit electro-stimulation, heat therapy.
To hurt myself, to tuck a leg or sprain of the foot very easily. Traditional healers came up with home treatments that help the ligaments to heal and ease the suffering:
- Can be applied on the damaged area of raw grated potato. This will relieve tension, reduce pain. Enhance effect help ingredients such as sugar, onions, cabbage. Compress leave for the night.
- Another effective method of home treatment of damaged ligaments of the ankle – bath with elder. Fresh berries are boiled in a small amount of fluid filtered, diluted in water. Immersed in a container of the injured limb for 5 minutes (repeat several times, until the bath cools down).
- You can apply for sprains lemon juice and garlic infusion. To do this, 3 garlic cloves crushed, soaked in 0.2 l of Water in an hour. The liquid is filtered, add the juice of one lemon, used to compress on the damaged area of the ankle. After heating to body temperature, is applied the gauze replaced with a new one.
To fully heal ligament, tissue, and the victim was able to walk on the damaged foot, it will take several months. About 60 days is a full course of rehabilitation after injuries of the ankle. The patient should strictly follow the instructions of the surgeon regularly perform therapeutic exercises that strengthen the ligaments of the foot, to avoid a high load on the damaged leg.
During this period it is advisable to go through the massages, water procedures, mud baths. Very soft on the development of ligaments affects swimming, so you should use the pool anyone who has the opportunity. It is important to remember that during the recovery period a hard bandage from the injured area of the foot must not be removed – this will help avoid new injuries.
Video: What to do when you sprain foot