In the history of Europe come and go from the political arena of a mighty and influential power. To those unconditionally is part of the Roman Empire. In certain periods of time, she — or rather, its direct successor, which coexisted with another power — the Empire of Charlemagne. When the state in question was present in the European political arena? What is the difference between Charlemagne’s Empire from the Roman Empire on periodization and political systems?
The content of the article
- Charlemagne’s Empire, when it existed and what was the basis of its statehood?
- The Roman Empire: the basic facts about the history and political structure
- The difference between Charlemagne’s Empire and the Roman Empire
- Comparison table
Charlemagne’s Empire, when it existed and what was the basis of its statehood?
Under the Empire of Charlemagne is commonly understood as a period of development of the Frankish state from 800 to 843 years. Formed and developed it to the «barbarian» (that is populated by the peoples narymskaja origin) the territories of the former Western Roman Empire, roughly coinciding with the lands of modern France, Western Germany, Northern Italy and other States, located within the relevant spaces.
Charlemagne — king of the Franks from 768 years, the Lombards, the Duke of Bavaria, the eldest son of Pepin the Short, the representative of the Carolingian dynasty, also king of the Franks from 751.
Among the most notable historical facts connected with the Frankish state, — the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor in the year 800. The title of Karl the Great awarded by Pope Leo III in Rome on Christmas day. Historians believe that this event allowed Europe to consider Frankish state as the heir of the Western Roman Empire. Note that the ruler of the Byzantine Empire — Eastern Rome — Michael I recognized the Imperial title of Charlemagne.
The king of the Franks, received such a high status, has played a crucial role in the development of the Frankish state, not only in the aspect of strengthening its political relevance, but also from the point of view of improving the legal system of the state. For example, the Emperor codified rather fragmented used to «barbarian» sources of norms. Appeared documents such as Saxon and Frisian though.
Charlemagne’s Empire on the political structure most consistent with early-feudal monarchy. The state was headed by a king, who administered the country, relying on military support of his guards. On the ground the Royal power within the established limits was delegated to counts and others accountable to the ruler of the country officials.
In 843, Charlemagne’s Empire was divided into 3 States Median, West Frankish and the East Frankish Kingdom. This was due to the fact that the Carolingian authorities was hereditary, and the territory of the Empire, if there were several heirs, was distributed between them. By the time the authorities are simultaneously received 3 grandson of Charlemagne and sons of Louis the Pious, who alone inherited the power from Charlemagne, his father, and the rules of a single state with 814 840 for the year.
to contents ↑the Roman Empire: the basic facts about the history and political structure
The Imperial period in Roman history begins, if you follow the most common scientific version, from 27 BC, i.e. since the coming to power of Octavian Augustus. In 395 the Empire split into 2 parts — Western and Eastern.
The political structure of the Roman Empire in different historical periods differed. So, from 1st century BC to 3rd century ad in Rome, the authority functioned in the form of the Principate that combines Republican and monarchical institutions. After the Empire was established dominat, significantly closer to the monarchy.
Western Roman Empire existed as a state until 476 years and then broke up into independent territory, subsequently passed under the control of «barbarian», later became a space for the formation of many European States. By the time of Charlemagne’s Empire of Western Rome as an independent political entity had ceased to exist.
The Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, if you follow the traditional to the researchers, lasted until 1453. In the 6th century, mainly during the reign of Emperor Justinian, the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire, originally based in the territories of Asia Minor, the Balkans, North Africa and parts of the Middle East, has spread throughout much of the former Western Roman Empire. In particular, the Byzantine Empire was joined by almost the entire Apennine Peninsula, which is modern Italy. By the early 8th century, the territory of the Byzantine Empire was considerably reduced: the bulk of the Empire was located in Asia Minor, some of its space in the outlying areas of the Balkans and the Apennine Peninsula, Sardinia and Corsica. To the 11th century Byzantium had annexed the territory of the Balkan and South of the Apennines, but by 1081 was lost most of the lands in Asia Minor. By the end of the 12th century the Empire managed to recover some of them. Subsequently, the territory of the Byzantine Empire declined under the pressure of external forces of militant: first the Mongols, then Turks. A significant part of the Balkans become independent of the Greek and Slavic States. By the mid-15th century the Byzantine Empire was almost completely conquered by the Ottomans. In 1453 it ceased to exist as a political entity.
Some researchers as the historical successor of the Eastern Roman Empire considered Russian realm, liberated from the Mongolian and increasingly powerful player on the European political arena. Religion, culture, heraldry Russian Empire and later Russian Empire were inherited from Byzantium, or had experienced a significant impact.
From the point of view of the political structure of the Eastern Roman Empire can be considered an absolute monarchy. The Governor of the state belonged to all the fullness of power.
It is worth to say about a state like the Holy Roman Empire. It was formed in the year 962 on the spaces, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Northern Italy, Germany and other German-speaking States. In 962 Otto I the Great, who was king of the Eastern Frankish state, received from Pope John XII the title of Emperor.
Thus, the Holy Roman Empire came to be regarded as the heiress of a powerful state and Charlemagne of the Western Roman Empire. In the 15-16 century it intensified the process of decentralization. To the early 17th century from the Holy Roman Empire separated the Italian territory. In the 17th and 18th century on the European stage the most powerful state formations of the Empire — primarily Austria and Prussia began to show themselves as independent political actors. In 1806, after the failure of the ruler of Austria Franz II to accept the German Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire as a centralized political entity ceased to exist.
From the point of view of the political structure of the Holy Roman Empire can be considered as an elective monarchy is when the ruler is chosen by the members of the Royal family, the Parliament or other competent authority.
to contents ↑the Difference between Charlemagne’s Empire and the Roman Empire
Of course, there is not one difference of Charlemagne’s Empire from the Roman Empire from the point of view of periodization, and in terms of political structure. Moreover, the comparison of the Frankish state the period of its highest prosperity it is lawful to carry out not with one but with four powers in one Empire, the Western, Eastern and Holy Roman empires.
More clearly to consider what is the difference between Charlemagne’s Empire and the Roman Empire (including for example political entities that became its sequel), will help us a small table.
to content ↑Comparative table
The Roman Empire and its successors
What is common between them?
Charlemagne’s Empire existed in the days of the Eastern Roman Empire, Charlemagne’s status as Emperor was recognized as the ruler of Byzantium
Was located on part of the former territories United and the Western Roman Empire — in particular, in the North of Italy, in Luganskoy, Narbonskaya Gaul, and Gaul Aquitania and Belgica
Largely coincided with the Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne was granted the status of Emperor from the Pope
What is the difference between them?
Existed from 800 to 843 years
Unified the Roman Empire existed from 27 BC to 395 ad, the Western Roman Empire from 395 to 476 years on, the Holy Roman Empire from 962 to 1806 years
The political form of the device corresponded to a feudal monarchy
Unified the Empire by the shape of the device was the Principate, then the difference dominat, Western Rome was the difference dominat, Eastern absolute monarchy, the Holy Roman Empire is an elective monarchy
Located predominantly in the territories of the historical region of Gaul, Northern Italy, Western part of modern Germany
Byzantium in the period of greatest prosperity coincided quite a bit over the territory with the Empire of Charlemagne, mainly in Italy