Signs of diabetes in children: initial symptoms and methods of diagnosis

Modern medicine thanks to its features allows you to avoid fatal consequences of diabetes. Symptoms of diabetes in children are similar to symptoms of the disease adults but the treatment is different. Previously, the diseases for young patients devastating, but the support of drugs allows the body to endure the symptoms of the disease. What are the signs of diabetes in children? Symptomatology, diagnosis and course of illness in children of different age categories are presented below in the article.

Types of diabetes

Often forms of the disease are not distinguished, but they are completely different. The varieties of diabetes include:

  1. Type I – the reason lies in the genetic predisposition of children to the disease, sometimes resulting from severe stress. It is a congenital disease, the child in this form of insulin dependent and requires support of the body drugs. Recycling of glucose by the tissues of the pancreas is difficult.
  2. Type II – in this category people non-insulin-dependent. Acquired diabetes is associated with improper metabolism and lack of insulin in the blood. Type of disease characteristic of older populations.

The first signs and symptoms of diabetes in child

Child develop diabetes very quickly, over a few weeks. What you need to be attentive parents as soon as possible to identify the disease:

  1. Thirst. When the blood sugar is elevated, it feeds water from cells, causing dehydration. Especially children like to drink in the evening.
  2. Frequent urge of urination. High glucose adversely affects the kidneys, the process of reverse suction of the primary urine is reduced and the child has frequent urination as a result of which the body gets rid of toxic substances.
  3. Enhanced appetite. When the child is eating but not gaining weight and even lose weight drastically, it is a sign that glucose into the cells does not arrive, there is their hunger.
  4. Feeling sick after taking food. While pancreas will not bring glucose levels back to normal, the child experienced nausea, abdominal pain and even vomiting.
  5. Sudden weight loss. Is such a symptom, if glucose does not enter cells at all, and the body has to eat a energy fat.
  6. Constant weakness. Fatigue, lethargy, apathy is associated with impaired absorption of glucose in the blood.
  7. The smell of acetone from mouth. This phenomenon is due to the formation of ketone bodies in the blood after breakdown of fats. The body needs to rid itself of toxins, and it does this through the lungs.
  8. Infectious diseases. A weakened immune system cannot cope with protective functions, and the child often carries bacterial and fungal infections.

Features of the disease depending on age

Diabetes in children of any age. In the first months of life it happens more rarely, but with 9 months starts puberty, which show the first signs of diabetes in children. Clinical manifestations and therapy in different age periods differ. As the disease depending on the age and how to detect diabetes in a child?

In infants

Acute onset of the disease in infants is alternated with a prodromal period that often goes unnoticed. Diagnosis of diabetes in children under one year are very difficult to define, because thirst and frequent urination difficult to detect. Some kids diabetes develops abruptly, with severe intoxication, vomiting, and dehydration and diabetic coma afterwards.

The second type of the disease is slow. Children infants under 2 years old not gaining weight though eating well. After the meal the child can become ill, but after drinking significantly legchayet. The development of infections on the background of the disease contributes to the formation of diaper rash on the genitals, the folds of skin under the diaper. Diaper rash are not very long, but if your baby’s urine hits the diaper, then drying up, they become crisp. If liquid is urine on the floor or other surface, they become sticky.

At preschool and primary school children

Diagnosis of diabetes at the age of children from 3 years to 5 years, primary school groups is complicated. The disease is difficult to detect prior to precoma or coma, because symptoms are not always recognizable. Signs that often occur in this age group:

  • a sharp depletion, degeneration;
  • the increased volume of the abdomen (frequent bloating);
  • flatulence;
  • problem stool;
  • dysbacteriosis;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • the smell of acetone from the mouth;
  • food refusal;
  • the vomiting;
  • the deterioration of the body, a complete rejection of the sweet.

Children are exposed to and type II diabetes, which is associated with poor diet, obesity, lack of physical exercise. More and more teenagers prefer junk food, subsequently, suffer by improper metabolism, impaired hormonal and the pancreas. The load on the vessels provokes weakening, there are additional complications of the disease. For this type of disease need a strict diet. Other signs of diabetes in younger children is not very pronounced.

In adolescents

In children older than 10 years, the incidence appears more often than at a younger age and is 37.5%. The detection of a disease, as in adults, is simpler, symptoms pronounced. Pre-puberty and puberty (13 years) period is characterized by such symptoms:

  • increased diabetes;
  • the constant lack of fluid;
  • enuresis;
  • sudden weight loss;
  • enhanced appetite.

It happens when the disease may exist, but has no distinct features, therefore, comes to light during the examination. The active growth period lasts up to six months. For the student is characterized by frequent fatigue, apathy, a weakening of the whole organism, the transfer of many types of infections. Adolescent girls may experience disrupted menstrual cycle, itching in the genital area. Stress has a devastating condition, the disease begins to develop even faster.

Methods of diagnosis

Significant differences diagnosis of the disease in children from adults is not, therefore, used such methods of detection:

  1. The blood analysis. Indicators that are particularly important in this study: the amount of protein, the amount of glucose in the blood prandial, glucose tolerance before and after meal, glycosylated hemoglobin. Important immunological study of blood collection: checks for the presence of antibodies, which indicates the development of diabetes.
  2. The General analysis of urine. Sign of diabetes in children is a huge amount of glucose in the urine, its increased density. This fact indicates that we need to inspect the kidney, which could be affected. Revealed the presence in the urine of acetone.
  3. The analysis on hormones.
  4. Pancreatography.
  5. The study of the skin. In diabetics is observed which is characteristic for the disease the flush of the cheeks, forehead, chin, skin, the tongue becomes crimson.
  6. Ultrasonography of the pancreas.

Possible complications and consequences

To maintain the body young patients are recommended diet, intake of drugs of different specificity of action, folk remedies. Parents should carefully monitor the flow of insulin in the body, proper nutrition, monitored exercise, avoid stress. What are the consequences of the disease, if left untreated?

  1. Coma (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, lactic acid, ketoatsidoticheskaya).
  2. Defeat of organs and systems.
  3. The development of infectious diseases.
  4. Fatal outcome due to severe illness.

Video: how to manifest diabetes mellitus in children

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