Diabetes mellitus in pregnant women: symptoms, treatment and menu for diet

The problem with a high level of glucose in the blood applies not only to diabetics, which are fighting with him forever: this disease frequently develop during pregnancy in women. Diabetes in pregnancy is also called gestational. You familiar with this concept? The instructions below will help to understand the causes, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Causes of diabetes during pregnancy

When diabetes appears in pregnant women for the first time, it is called gestational, different GDM. He appears as a consequence of violations of carbohydrate metabolism. The normal blood sugar for pregnant women ranges from 3.3 to 6.6 mmol/l. it is Increased for the following reason:

  1. Inside growing child needs energy, especially glucose, in pregnant women therefore violated the metabolism of carbohydrates.
  2. The placenta produces increased amounts of the hormone progesterone, which insulin has the opposite effect, after all, only increases the blood sugar in pregnant women.
  3. The pancreas is under heavy load and often cannot cope with it.
  4. As a result of developing GDM in pregnant women.

Risk factors

Medium risk are pregnant women with the following characteristics:

  • slightly increased body weight;
  • polyhydramnios in previous pregnancy;
  • the birth of a large child;
  • the child had a malformation;
  • miscarriage;
  • preeclampsia.

The risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women is even higher in the following cases:

  • a high degree of obesity;
  • diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
  • discovered sugar in the urine;
  • polycystic ovarian.

The symptoms and signs of disease

Test glucose cannot be ruled out during pregnancy, as gestational diabetes in the light form is almost invisible. The doctor often assigns a careful study. The point is to measure the sugar in a pregnant woman after drinking the liquid with dissolved glucose. The purpose of the analysis contribute to the signs of diabetes in women during pregnancy:

  • a strong sense of hunger;
  • constant desire to drink;
  • dry mouth;
  • fatigue;
  • frequent urination;
  • the deterioration of vision.

Methods of diagnosis

During pregnancy, from 24 to 28 week, the woman should take the test on glucose tolerance. The first test is on an empty stomach, the second after food after 2 hours, the last control one hour after the previous one. Diagnostics on an empty stomach may show a normal result, so conduct complex research. Pregnant you need to follow a few rules:

  1. 3 days before delivery it is impossible to change the usual diet.
  2. In the analysis on an empty stomach at least 6 hours after last meal.
  3. After taking blood sugar, drink a glass of water. Pre-dissolved in it 75 g of glucose.

In addition to blood tests, the doctor examines the medical history of the pregnant woman and several indicators. After reviewing these data, the specialist is the curve values, which may increase the weight of the pregnant woman every week. This helps to track potential deviations. Here are these indicators:

  • body type;
  • the circumference of the abdomen;
  • the size of the pelvis;
  • the height and weight.

Treatment of diabetes in pregnancy

With a confirmed diabetes, do not despair, because the disease is manageable if you do some activities:

  1. Measurements of blood sugar.
  2. Periodic urine samples.
  3. Compliance with diet.
  4. Moderate physical activity.
  5. The weight control.
  6. Insulin intake if necessary.
  7. The study blood pressure.


The mainstay of treatment of diabetes in pregnancy is a change in diet, only the principle is not to lose weight, but reducing daily caloric content at the same level of nutrition. Pregnant it is recommended to divide the meals into 2-3 main and as many snacks, portions, it is desirable to make small. Use in case of diabetes, it is recommended the following products:

  1. Porridge – rice, buckwheat.
  2. Vegetables – cucumbers, tomatoes, radishes, zucchini, beans, cabbage.
  3. Fruits – grapefruit, plums, peaches, apples, oranges, pears, avocado.
  4. Berries – blueberries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries.
  5. Meat – Turkey, chicken, beef without fat and skin.
  6. Fish – perch, salmon, sardine, carp, whiting.
  7. Seafood – shrimp, caviar.
  8. Dairy products – cottage cheese, cheese.

Balance daily menus so that the body received about 50% carbohydrates, 30% protein and the rest fat. Diet during pregnancy to cases with gestational diabetes mellitus does not allow the use of following products;

  • fried and fatty;
  • sour cream;
  • pastries, pastries;
  • fruits – persimmon, banana, grapes, figs;
  • sauce;
  • sausages, sausages;
  • sausages;
  • mayonnaise;
  • pork;
  • lamb.

In addition to avoiding harmful foods, a diet from diabetes need to cook useful. To use processing methods such as stewing, steaming, cooking for a couple, roasting. In addition, pregnant women are advised to reduce the amount of oil in the cooking process. Vegetables are better eaten raw in salad or boiled as a garnish to meat.


Motor activity in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, especially outdoors, helps increase the flow to all organs of oxygen-rich blood. It is useful for child because it improves metabolism. Exercise helps to expend excess amount of sugar if you have diabetes and spend calories that the weight has not increased more than necessary. About the abdominal exercises for pregnant women have yet to forget, but you can include your other types of physical activity:

  1. Hiking an average pace of at least 2 hours.
  2. Exercise in the pool, for example, water aerobics.
  3. Gymnastics at home.

The following exercises can be performed independently of pregnancy occurring with diabetes mellitus:

  1. Getting up on tiptoe. Lean on the chair arms and up on her feet, and then go down. Repeat about 20 times.
  2. Push-UPS against a wall. Uprites hands on the wall, having receded from it on 1-2 steps. Perform movements similar to push-UPS.
  3. Skating ball. Sit on a chair, on the floor lay a small ball. Grab his toes, and then release it or just roll on the floor.

Drug therapy

In the absence of the therapeutic effectiveness of diet and physical activity doctor prescribed medical therapy of diabetes. Pregnant women are only allowed insulin: administered according to the scheme in the form of injections. Pills taken with diabetes before pregnancy are not permitted. In the period of carrying a child is assigned to recombinant human insulin is of two types:

  1. Short-acting – «Actrapid», «Lizpro». Injected after meals. Characterized by rapid, but short-term effect.
  2. Average duration – «Isophane», «Homalin». Supports sugar levels between meals, so missing just 2 injections a day.

Possible complications and consequences

If there is no proper and correct treatment can be fixable and serious consequences of diabetes. In most outcomes born with low sugar recovering with breastfeeding. The same happens with the mother – the placenta is released as an irritant it no longer kicks into her system a large number of hormones. There are other complications of diabetes in pregnant women:

  1. Increased sugar in pregnancy causes excessive growth of the fetus, so births are often carried out by the method of caesarean section.
  2. At natural childbirth of a large baby he may have damaged shoulders. In addition, birth injuries can receive and mother.
  3. Diabetes mellitus may persist in women after pregnancy. This occurs in 20% of cases.

During the pregnancy the woman may experience the following complications of diabetes:

  1. Preeclampsia in the last pregnancy.
  2. Spontaneous miscarriage.
  3. Inflammation of the urinary tract.
  4. Polyhydramnios.
  5. Ketoacidosis. Ketoamides preceded by a coma. Symptoms are thirst, vomiting, drowsiness, smell of acetone.

Is it possible to give birth with diabetes? This disease is a serious threat to kidneys, heart and vision of a pregnant woman, so there are cases where to reduce risks is not possible and pregnancy is included in the list of contraindications:

  1. Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with an emphasis on ketoacidosis.
  2. Additional disease – tuberculosis.
  3. Diabetes in each of the parents.
  4. Rhesus-conflict.
  5. Ischemia of the heart.
  6. Renal failure.
  7. Severe form of gastroenteropatii.

Video about gestational diabetes during pregnancy

The state of women during pregnancy affect the future health of her baby. Diabetes and pregnancy – this combination is very common, but the disease is uncontrollable and treatment in different ways. To learn more about diabetes during pregnancy, watch the useful video with the characteristics of the course of illness.

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