The thyroid gland is a small but very important organ in the human body, from which depend many of the processes. Its main function is production of hormones that promote metabolism in the body. If their number exceeds the norm, sharply accelerated the processes of metabolisation, are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. 75% of people the condition develops on the background of diffuse goiter. Review the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism, causes, main symptoms in children and adults.
The symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism
If a person easy stage, i.e., subclinical hyperthyroidism, it occurs without apparent clinical symptoms. For moderate and severe forms can be seen the typical external signs: increased palpebral fissure, exophthalmia, Hyper-pigmentation of the eyelids. In addition, there are internal symptoms: hypertension, fever, rapid pulse, tachycardia. Often disorders of the nervous system, weakness, sleep disturbance, noticeable surges of hormones T3 and T4. Due to the loss of protein, deficiency of vitamins occurs in thyrotoxicosis beriberi.
The nodes in the thyroid gland
The formation of small forms often go undetected, because not accompanied by pain or other symptoms. Nodes thyrotoxicosis are modified thyroid tissue, often formed on its edges. If several tumors diagnosed multinodular toxic goiter or non-toxic form of hyperthyroidism. If the seals are large, the person feels a lump in his throat. Multiple neoplasms thyrotoxicosis, as a rule, are benign.
This is a very common pathology, characterized by an excessive increase in body size – it is visible to the naked eye, can be palpated. More accurate results visible on ultrasound. How increased body are judged according to special tables. In women the amount may be different depending on the cycle of presence/absence of pregnancy, but in normal condition should not exceed 25 ml. men size stable and should also not be more than 25 ml.
If nothing is done, the glandular tissue in the nodes can induce the appearance of cancer cells. Increases thyroid are manifested the following symptoms of hyperthyroidism:
- soreness when palpating;
- thickening of the neck;
- education is a huge «collar»;
- shortness of breath;
- dry cough;
- the compression of the surrounding organs;
- a feeling of heaviness in the chest.
We are talking about the increase of thyroid stimulating hormone. In hypothyroidism produces little T3 and T4, and for normalizing their number in the body increases the synthesis of thyrotropin. Biochemical blood analysis shows a high titer of antibodies to the TSH receptor. If the patient is diagnosed goiter diffuse toxic, or hub, free T3 elevated.
How to reduce TSH thyrotoxicosis? It will decrease once the concentration of the thyroid hormone reaches a normal level. To compensate for the deficiency of T3 and T4 are reserved exclusively for drugs. It can be «Eutirox», «L-thyroxine». To prevent excess synthetic drugs, should be carried out periodically hormonal studies.
Eye symptoms of hyperthyroidism
If you look at photos of people suffering from autoimmune syndrome, you might think that they are somewhat scared or shocked. The expression on their face give the characteristic symptoms of hyperthyroidism:
- A wide opening of the eyes.
- Protruding eyeballs (exophthalmos).
- Upper eyelid edema.
- When lowering the eye behind the upper eyelid. Symptom Graefe thyrotoxicosis occurs due to increased muscle tone.
- When closed eyelids flutter.
- Thyrotoxic ophthalmopathy (swelling of the conjunctiva, eyelids, tear production, exophthalmia, pain, stinging, feeling of sand).
- Rare blinking.
- With the rapid change of opinion exposed areas of the sclera syndrome (Kocher).
Characterized by stable increase in blood pressure, which is sometimes not accompanied by any symptoms. Sometimes the person has dizziness, pain, there is a sense of the flashing flies before the eyes. Because of this violation suffer kidney, heart, brain, blood vessels, possible heart attacks, strokes, vision problems and other complications.
Other signs of Graves ‘ disease
One of the clinical manifestations of thyroiditis – the defeat of the cardiovascular system as a result of excess thyroid hormones. Disorders are manifested in the form of heart palpitations, arrythmia, high pulse pressure. Older people often develop heart failure. Overt thyrotoxicosis is additionally characterized by an increased tone of the sympathetic nervous system, impaired microcirculation, enhanced glycolysis.
Another symptom of hyperthyroidism – disorders in the gastrointestinal tract. Attributes are expressed, and often they look for when diagnosing the syndrome. At relapse of hyperthyroidism symptoms arise again. Patients complain of:
- attacks of pain;
- mushy frequent stools, diarrhea;
- poor appetite;
- increase or decrease in acidity.
Often, thyrotoxicosis, especially in moderate and severe forms of the syndrome, is suffering from the liver. The body increases greatly in size, jaundice of varying intensity. Studies show functional insufficiency of the liver. If the person has fatty diarrhea, this may indicate a serious lesion of the pancreas.
Features symptoms of increased thyroid function
Of hyperthyroidism there are some sex and age peculiarities. He mostly affects women from 20 to 50 years. This is because they often is a breach of the relationship of the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary system and the gonads. Learn more about other features of symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in women, men and children.
Symptoms in women:
- irregular menstrual cycle;
- severe abdominal pain (especially in nulliparous);
- nausea, vomiting;
- «cotton» feet;
- intense hair loss.
Signs such as weakness, drowsiness, nausea, nonspecific, characteristic of thyrotoxicosis and for the period of carrying a child. Before medical treatment shown to explore hormone levels in women who are at risk. If thyrotoxicosis not receive thyreostatics, forecasts unfavourable – to further develop destructive form. Important: thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy is not a contraindication to continue gestation.
Hyperthyroidism in men is accompanied by breast enlargement, emotional instability, loss of concentration. Characteristic symptom – reduced potency, which may result in infertility. Thyrotoxicosis thyroid size in men rarely exceeds 3 degrees. Frequently observed endocrine ophthalmopathy. Compared with women in men rare cases of tachycardia.
Hyperthyroidism in children is rare, mostly develops from an early age due to violations in the work of the thyroid. In the pubertal age observed the complaints from the nervous system: sleep disturbance, irritability, low efficiency. In addition to diseases characterized by excessive sweating, tremor of hands, eyelids, tongue, and headaches. One of the constant signs of thyrotoxicosis – tachycardia.
Even with an increased appetite children lose weight eyes. They often suffer from diarrhea, dyspeptic disorders. There are eye symptoms, but they are not as much as in adults. One of the distinctive manifestations of the syndrome in children the excess of the actual growth. Most of the toddlers, the thyroid is diffusely enlarged.
Video about the symptoms of diffuse toxic goiter